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Observations of M31 and M33 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope: A Galactic Center Excess in Andromeda?
Ackermann, M.1; Ajello, M.2; Albert, A.3; Baldini, L.4; Ballet, J.5; Barbiellini, G.6,7; Bastieri, D.8,9; Bellazzini, R.10; Bissaldi, E.11; Bloom, E. D.12; Bonino, R.13,14; Bottacini, E.12; Brandt, T. J.15; Bregeon, J.16; Bruel, P.17; Buehler, R.1; Cameron, R. A.12; Caputo, R.18; Caragiulo, M.11,19; Caraveo, P. A.20; Cavazzuti, E.21; Cecchi, C.22,23; Charles, E.12; Chekhtman, A.24,61; Chiaro, G.9; Ciprini, S.21,22; Costanza, F.11; Cutini, S.21,22; D'Ammando, F.25,26; de Palma, F.11,27; Desiante, R.13,28; Digel, S. W.12; Di Lalla, N.4; Di Mauro, M.12; Di Venere, L.11,19; Favuzzi, C.11,19; Funk, S.29; Fusco, P.11,19; Gargano, F.11; Giglietto, N.11,19; Giordano, F.11,19; Giroletti, M.25; Glanzman, T.12; Green, D.15,30; Grenier, I. A.5; Guillemot, L.31,32; Guiriec, S.15,62; Hayashi, K.33; Hou X(侯贤)34,35,36,37; Johannesson, G.38; Kamae, T.39; Knodlseder, J.40,41; Kong, A. K. H.35; Kuss, M.10; La Mura, G.9; Larsson, S.42,43; Latronico, L.13; Li, J.44; Longo, F.6,7; Loparco, F.11,19; Lubrano, P.22; Maldera, S.13; Malyshev, D.29; Manfreda, A.4; Martin, P.40,41; Mazziotta, M. N.11; Michelson, P. F.12; Mirabal, N.15,62; Mitthumsiri, W.45; Mizuno, T.46; Monzani, M. E.12; Morselli, A.47; Moskalenko, I. V.12; Negro, M.13,14; Nuss, E.16; Ohsugi, T.46; Omodei, N.12; Orlando, E.12; Ormes, J. F.48; Paneque, D.49; Persic, M.6,50; Pesce-Rollins, M.10; Piron, F.16; Porter, T. A.12; Principe, G.29; Raino, S.11,19; Rando, R.8,9; Razzano, M.10,63; Reimer, O.12,51; Sanchez-Conde, M.43,52; Sgro, C.10; Simone, D.11; Siskind, E. J.53; Spada, F.10; Spandre, G.10; Spinelli, P.11,19; Tanaka, K.54; Tibaldo, L.55; Torres, D. F.44,56; Troja, E.15,30; Uchiyama, Y.57; Wang JC(王建成)34,36,37; Wood, K. S.58,61; Wood, M.12; Zaharijas, G.59,60; Zhou M(周明)34,36,37; Hou, X.(Chinese Acad Sci, Yunnan Observ, 396 Yangfangwang, Kunming 650216, Peoples R China)
发表期刊ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL
2017-02-20
卷号836期号:2
DOI10.3847/1538-4357/aa5c3d
产权排序第34完成单位
收录类别SCI
关键词Cosmic Rays Gamma Rays: Galaxies Local Group
摘要The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has opened the way for comparative studies of cosmic rays (CRs) and high-energy objects in the Milky Way (MW) and in other, external, star-forming galaxies. Using 2 yr of observations with the Fermi LAT, Local Group galaxy M31 was detected as a marginally extended gamma-ray source, while only an upper limit has been derived for the other nearby galaxy M33. We revisited the gamma-ray emission in the direction of M31 and M33 using more than 7 yr of LAT Pass 8 data in the energy range 0.1-100 GeV, presenting detailed morphological and spectral analyses. M33 remains undetected, and we computed an upper limit of 2.0 x 10(-12) erg cm(-2) s(-1) on the 0.1-100 GeV energy flux (95% confidence level). This revised upper limit remains consistent with the observed correlation between gamma-ray luminosity and star formation rate tracers and implies an average CR density in M33 that is at most half of that of the MW. M31 is detected with a significance of nearly 10 sigma. Its spectrum is consistent with a power law with photon index Gamma = 2.4 +/- 0.1(stat) (vertical bar) (syst) and a 0.1-100 GeV energy flux of (5.6 +/- 0.6(stat vertical bar syst)) x 10(-12) erg cm(-1) s(-1). M31 is detected to be extended with a 4 sigma significance. The spatial distribution of the emission is consistent with a uniform-brightness disk with a radius of 0 degrees.4 and no offset from the center of the galaxy, but nonuniform intensity distributions cannot be excluded. The flux from M31 appears confined to the inner regions of the galaxy and does not fill the disk of the galaxy or extend far from it. The gamma-ray signal is not correlated with regions rich in gas or star formation activity, which suggests that the emission is not interstellar in origin, unless the energetic particles radiating in gamma rays do not originate in recent star formation. Alternative and nonexclusive interpretations are that the emission results from a population of millisecond pulsars dispersed in the bulge and disk of M31 by disrupted globular clusters or from the decay or annihilation of dark matter particles, similar to what has been proposed to account for the so-called Galactic center excess found in Fermi-LAT observations of the MW.
项目资助者National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; Department of Energy in the United States ; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique ; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules in France ; Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy ; Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) ; High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) ; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan ; K. A. Wallenberg Foundation ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish National Space Board in Sweden ; National Natural Science Foundation of China(11503078, 11573060) ; Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of China (Taiwan)(104-2811-M-007-059, 103-2628-M-007-003-MY3)
语种英语
学科领域天文学
文章类型Article
ISSN0004-637X
URL查看原文
WOS记录号WOS:000395870900001
WOS研究方向Astronomy & Astrophysics
WOS类目Astronomy & Astrophysics
关键词[WOS]LARGE-MAGELLANIC-CLOUD ; STAR-FORMING GALAXIES ; GAMMA-RAY EMISSION ; LOCAL GROUP GALAXIES ; HERSCHEL EXPLOITATION ; GLOBULAR-CLUSTERS ; STELLAR MASS ; DARK-MATTER ; COSMIC-RAYS ; ATOMIC GAS
引用统计
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.ynao.ac.cn/handle/114a53/9985
专题高能天体物理研究组
中国科学院天体结构与演化重点实验室
通讯作者Hou, X.(Chinese Acad Sci, Yunnan Observ, 396 Yangfangwang, Kunming 650216, Peoples R China)
作者单位1.Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany
2.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
3.Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
4.Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa, Italy
5.Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, France
6.Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy
7.Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy
8.Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy
9.Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy
10.Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy
11.Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy
12.2 W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
13.Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino, Italy
14.Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, I-10125 Torino, Italy
15.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
16.Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier, France
17.Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France
18.Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
19.Dipartimento di Fisica “M. Merlin” dell’Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy
20.0 INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano, Italy
21.Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00133 Roma, Italy
22.2 Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy
23.Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy
24.College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
25.5 INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, I-40129 Bologna, Italy
26.6 Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università di Bologna, I-40127 Bologna, Italy
27.Università Telematica Pegaso, Piazza Trieste e Trento, 48, I-80132 Napoli, Italy
28.Università di Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy
29.9 Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany
30.0 Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
31.Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace—Université d’Orléans/CNRS, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 02, France
32.Station de radioastronomie de Nançay, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS/INSU, F-18330 Nançay, France
33.3 Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku Nagoya 464-8602, Japan
34.Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming 650216, China
35.5 Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan
36.Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming 650216, China
37.Center for Astronomical Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012, China
38.Science Institute, University of Iceland, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland
39.Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
40.CNRS, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4, France
41.Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse, France
42.Department of Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
43.The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
44.Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Magrans s/n, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain
45.Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
46.6 Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
47.Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata,” I-00133 Roma, Italy
48.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA
49.Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany
50.0 Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, I-34143 Trieste, Italy
51.1 Institut für Astro- und Teilchenphysik and Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
52.Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
53.NYCB Real-Time Computing Inc., Lattingtown, NY 11560, USA
54.Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
55.Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany
56.Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), E-08010 Barcelona, Spain
57.Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501, Japan
58.Praxis Inc., Alexandria, VA 22303, USA
59.Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy
60.Laboratory for Astroparticle Physics, University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13, SI-5000 Nova Gorica, Slovenia
61.Resident at Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA
62.NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow, USA
63.Funded by contract FIRB-2012-RBFR12PM1F from the Italian Ministry of
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Ackermann, M.,Ajello, M.,Albert, A.,et al. Observations of M31 and M33 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope: A Galactic Center Excess in Andromeda?[J]. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,2017,836(2).
APA Ackermann, M..,Ajello, M..,Albert, A..,Baldini, L..,Ballet, J..,...&Hou, X..(2017).Observations of M31 and M33 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope: A Galactic Center Excess in Andromeda?.ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,836(2).
MLA Ackermann, M.,et al."Observations of M31 and M33 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope: A Galactic Center Excess in Andromeda?".ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 836.2(2017).
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