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Alternative TitleResearch on New Technique for Space Debris Measurements
Thesis Advisor熊耀恒
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院(云南天文台)
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline天体测量与天体力学
Keyword空间碎片 探测 漫反射激光测距 轨道确定 自适应光学
Abstract为了提高我国空间碎片探测技术水平,研究空间碎片探测新技术手段具有重要的科学意义和应用价值。论文从空间碎片的定义、来源及分类出发,介绍 了空间碎片轨道分布情况、空间碎片的危害、探测研究进展和探测技术手段等。在此基础上,作者开展的研究工作如下: 首先,论文着重介绍了空间碎片漫反射激光测距探测新方法。通过地面试验和理论分析,估算了1.2 m 望远镜进行漫反射激光测距的成功概率,积极从 多种渠道争取了试验经费,为实测试验顺利开展提供了保障。组织了空间碎片漫反射激光测距试验,成功获得了空间碎片测距回波,并对回波数据进行了处 理,分析了漫反射测距误差来源,测距误差范围为50~250 cm。 其次,深入研究了单站激光测距数据联合测角数据对空间碎片轨道改进的方法,即在资料处理过程中,利用高精度的测距资料去平差相对而言精度较低 的测角资料,将两者有机地结合起来,形成一个在确定时刻所对应的位置矢量,用于空间碎片轨道改进。仿真计算结果显示:该算法的定轨精度优于单 纯测角数据的定轨精度,有很好的实用价值。利用SGP4/SDP4 模型编写了漫反射激光测距预报程序,为空间碎片漫反射激光测距成功探测提供了保障。 最后,基于1.2 m 望远镜同时具备漫反射激光测距系统和自适应光学成像系统,创新性地提出利用两套系统对大空间碎片进行同步测量的方法。提出了 漫反射激光测距的新技术方案,即测量一个激光主波和与之对应的多个回波之间时间间隔,相当于把空间碎片表面不同部位的回波包络测量出来。将回波包 络与自适应光学图像匹配处理,得出空间目标几何尺度、形状和姿态等特征信息,从而判定空间目标是否为空间碎片,为我国空间态势感知提供技术服务。 本文的研究工作实现了空间碎片漫反射激光测距技术,达到了国内一流技术水平,拓宽了我国空间碎片探测手段;精密定轨的研究为空间碎片定轨提供 了一种单站轨道计算方法;而激光测距与自适应光学成像联合探测大空间碎片的方法属于国内首创,项目实现后,将会大大提高我国对空间碎片的探测和识 别能力。
Other AbstractIn order to improve our national technique level of detecting space debris, new detection technique means researched for it have significant value of science and application. According to definition, derivation and catalogue of space debris, orbit distribution, harm, detection research progress and detecting technique methods of it are introduced. Based on this, the author did make the following works: Firstly, to research new detection methods, i.e. space debris diffuse reflection laser ranging (DRLR) technique. By theory analysis, author estimated successful probability of it carried out on 1.2m telescope, positively asked for experiment fund from different way to ensure experiment successfully, and organized DRLR observation and got signal from space debris successfully. By data processing and error source analyzing, accuracy is about between 50cm and 250cm. Secondly, to research methods of improving space debris orbit utilizing single DRLR data combined with angular measurement data, i.e. during data processed, the author used high precision ranging data to adjust angular measurement data that had worse accuracy than ranging data, and effectively combined them to form a position vector r at exactly t epoch used for space debris orbit improvement. The simulation and calculation result indicated that this method would improve orbit determination precision and had well useful value. The author developed DRLR predict program to make strongly foundation for observing experiment successfully. Finally, to advance innovational method which the DRLR system and adaptive optical (AO) imaging system on 1.2m telescope measured synchronously big space debris. The author advanced new technique means for DRLR, which measure a laser transmit epoch and its multi-return epochs to get returns envelopment from different part of object, and processed returns envelopment combined with AO image to obtain geometric size, shape and appearance characteristic information, so to identify whether the object is a space debris or not. Technique researched served for our national space situational awareness. This research carried out DRLR technique. It achieved first-class technique and widened space debris detection ways in our nation. Precision orbit determination research generated a single station orbit compute method for space debris orbit determination, while combination DRLR and AO imaging method to detect big space debris is an innovation in our country. After this project is realized, it would highly improve space debris detection and identification capability for our nation.
Subject Area天文学
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李语强. 空间碎片探测新方法研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院(云南天文台),2011.
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