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 太阳爆发活动多波段高分辨观测 其他题名 Multi-Wavelength and High-Resolution Observations of Solar Eruptive Activities 申远灯 学位类型 博士 导师 刘煜 2012-05-15 学位授予单位 中国科学院研究生院（云南天文台） 学位授予地点 北京 学位专业 天体物理 关键词 暗条 日冕波 日冕喷流 耀斑 活动 摘要 太阳大气中时刻发生着各种各样的爆发活动现象。例如耀斑、暗条爆发、喷流、日冕物质抛射以及各种波动现象等。前人的大量观测研究表明，太阳磁场在各种爆发活动现象中都起着决定性的作用。由于许多太阳爆发活动现象都会对地球空间环境和人类生活产生巨大影响，对太阳爆发活动现象的研究和预报都具有非常重要的现实意义。另外，太阳是距离地球最近的一颗恒星，也是人们唯一可以近距离观测的一颗恒星。太阳爆发活动现象的研究，对其它恒星的研究也具有重要的参考价值。 本论文主要对暗条爆发、日冕喷流和日冕波动三类现象进行多波段高分辨观测研究。通过深入挖掘大量观测数据，力图探索这些爆发现象内在的物理本质，并构建相关物理模型进行解释。 在暗条爆发方面，本论文在第三章中研究了未遂暗条爆发的触发机制及其原因，发现耀斑能量释放的多少是决定暗条爆发成功与否的一个关键因素。第四章中研究了一个相应暗条爆发事件，我首次引入磁内爆机制来解释两个暗条爆发之间内在的物理联系。另外，我还根据观测结果构建了相关物理模型来解释该相应暗条爆发事件。 在日冕喷流爆发方面，本论文分析了一个由磁纽绞解緾驱动的极区旋转喷流（第五章）和一个爆裂型日冕喷流（第六章）。对于极区旋转喷流，它在爆发过程中表现出明显的径向扩张运动，研究表明喷流中的非势场足以提供喷流爆发所需的所有能量。而对于爆裂型喷流的研究，我首次发现一个泡状日冕物质抛射和一个喷流状日冕物质抛射可以同时在同一个日冕爆裂喷流事件中产生，我还根据观测结果构建了相关物理模型对事件进行了合理解释。 在日冕波动方面，本论文在第七章研究了一个准周期快模磁声波波动事件。我发现与该准周期快磁声波相关耀斑所具有的所有脉动频率都可以在准周期快磁声波所具有的频率中找到，而准周期快磁声波的低频部分并不与耀斑相关。我认为耀斑的脉动和对应频率的准周期快磁声波可能是由耀斑磁重联过程中的微观动力学原因所激发，而准周期快磁声波的低频波部分可能来自于压力驱动的光球 p 模振荡。在第八章中首次研究了一个同时在太阳光球、色球、过渡区和低日冕被观测到的大尺度日冕波波动事件。我认为在低层太阳大气层次上观测到的波动现象实际上是由在日冕中传播的激波低层大气相互作用而造成。它在本质上是快模磁声波。第九章中分析了另外一个大尺度日冕波动事件，通过对该日冕波与其传播路径上的日冕磁结构的相互作用产生的物理效应进行观测分析，我认为该日冕波应该是一个由日冕物质抛射侧翼驱动的非线性快模磁声波。 随着更多更好的空间和地面观测设备投入使用，所获得的高质量观测资料必将揭示太阳大气中这些爆发活动现象的真实物理本质。 其他摘要 In the past several decades, various solar eruptive activities have been observed anywhere at anytime in the solar atmosphere. For example, solar flares, filament eruptions, jets, coronal mass ejections, wave phenomena, etc. Previous observations have indicated that solar magnetic field plays a dominant role in the evolution processes of all types of solar activities. Since many large scale solar eruptive activities can cause significant effect on the space environment of the Earth as well as the modern life of human, studying and forecasting the solar activities is an urgent task. In addition, the Sun is the nearest star from us, people can directly observe and study it in great details. Hence, studying the Sun should contribute significant value for studying other stars in the universe. This thesis mainly focuses on the multi-wavelength, high-temporal and high-spatial resolution observations of three types of solar activities: the filament eruptions, the coronal jets and the coronal waves. By analyzing various observations taken by ground-based and space-borne instruments, I try to understand and figure out the inherent physical mechanisms and construct models to interpret these solar eruptive activities. For the filament eruptions, I study the triggering mechanism and the impact factors of one failed filament eruption in Chapter 3. I find that the amount of energy release of the flare is a key impact factor for the fate of a filament eruption. In Chapter 4, I report two sympathetic events, including one partial and one full filament eruptions, in a quadrupolar magnetic source region. Our analysis results indicate that the magnetic implosion could be used to link the two filament eruptions, and the structural properties of coronal fields are important for producing sympathetic eruptions. For coronal jets, I study an unwinding polar coronal jet in Chapter 5 and a coronal blowout jet in Chapter 6, respectively. For the unwinding polar coronal jet, it exhibited obvious transverse expansion during its ejection period, which underwent three distinct phases: the slow expansion phase, the fast expansion phase and the steady phase. I find that the non-potential magnetic field in the jet can supply the energy for the coronal jet. For the coronal blowout jet, I first report that a coronal blowout jet can be associated with a simultaneous bubble-like and a jet-like coronal mass ejection in one solar event. Based on our analysis results, I propose a physical model to interpret the observed coronal blowout jet. I also study three coronal wave events in this thesis. In Chapter 7, a wave event that exhibits quasi-periodic fast propagating (QFP) magnetosonic waves is studied, as well as the associated pulsation flare. I find that almost all the frequencies of the flare are consistent with that of the QFP waves, which is revealed by the k-omega diagram of the QFP waves. In the meantime, a few low frequencies revealed by the $k$--$\omega$ diagram of the QFP waves could not be found from the flare light curves. I propose that both the periodicity of the flare and the QFP waves are excited by a common physical origin, while the low frequencies of the QFP waves result from the leakage of the pressure-driven p-mode oscillations from the photosphere. The origin and the basic physical nature of large scale coronal waves still remain mysterious. In Chapter 8, I report a coronal wave that can be observed simultaneously in the solar photosphere, chromosphere, transition region and low corona. Our analysis results indicate that this wave should be a coronal shock wave driven by the expanding flanks of the associated coronal mass ejection. The wave signatures observed in the lower solar atmosphere are caused by the sweeping of the shock wave traveling in the corona. The physical nature of this wave is a fast mode of magnetosonic wave. Another coronal wave is presented in Chapter 9. By studying the interaction of the wave with some magnetic structures along its propagation path, I find that the wave manifests a lot of wave effects such as reflection and refraction. I propose that this coronal wave is a nonlinear fast magnetosonic wave driven by the expanding flanks of the associated coronal mass ejection. Along with the fast development of many new ground-based and space-borne solar telescopes, high quality observation will certainly help us to reveal the true physics behind various solar eruptive activities. 学科领域 天文学 语种 中文 文献类型 学位论文 条目标识符 http://ir.ynao.ac.cn/handle/114a53/7220 专题 选址与日冕观测组 推荐引用方式GB/T 7714 申远灯. 太阳爆发活动多波段高分辨观测[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院（云南天文台）,2012.
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