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 太阳活动区磁场变化及其相关爆发的研究 Alternative Title The investigation of solar active-region magnetic evolution and related solar eruptions 闫晓理 Subtype 博士 Thesis Advisor 屈中权 2012-05-28 Degree Grantor 中国科学院研究生院（云南天文台） Place of Conferral 北京 Degree Discipline 天体物理 Keyword 太阳黑子 太阳磁场 太阳耀斑 日冕物质抛射 太阳暗条 Abstract 太阳是离地球最近的恒星，是宇宙恒星家族中极其普通的一员。正因为这样，研究太阳对认识恒星的形成、演化、内部结构和外层大气有非常重要的意义。更重要的是，它的第三颗行星---地球上孕育了智慧的人类。同时，太阳的活动及其周期性变化，直接影响人类生存的环境。 太阳黑子活动和太阳爆发的研究一直是太阳物理的重点和难点。太阳黑子的形成、其磁场的演化和太阳爆发的关系还存在很多没有被揭开的秘密。太阳活动区中的磁流浮现、磁流对消和黑子运动都会对太阳高层大气产生很大的影响，导致耀斑、日冕物质抛射、日珥（暗条）、日浪等爆发，特别是对地的大的太阳爆发会给日地空间环境带来很大的影响。太阳上的剧烈爆发，例如：太阳耀斑，日冕物质抛射，高速太阳风等都能引起地球磁场和电离层的强烈扰动，导致短波无线电通讯中断、供电系统破坏、空间飞行器发生故障、宇航员人身安全受到伤害，所以研究太阳活动区磁场演化、黑子运动及其相关的爆发不但在理论科学上有着非常重要的意义，而且关系着人类生存的环境。 对太阳的观测已经从原来的单一的波段观测研究发展到地面和空间相结合的多波段的观测研究。国际上特别是20世纪40-50年代的探空火箭到后来的“阳光（Yohkoh）”,“太阳和日球天文台（Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, 简称SOHO）”，“过渡区和日冕探测者（Transition Region and Coronal Explorer, 简称TRACE）”，“日初（Hinode）”，“日地关系研究天文台（Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory，简称STEREO)”，以及2010年2月份“太阳动力学天文台（Solar Dynamics Observatory，简称SDO)”等卫星的发射，这些卫星对太阳进行多波段、更全面、更精细的观测研究，取得了前所未有的重大成果。 本文主要是运用空间和地面望远镜的多波段观测数据，对太阳活动区磁场变化及其相关的爆发进行研究，探求太阳剧烈活动的起源。 本文分为以下几个部分： 第一章，太阳黑子，太阳暗条（日珥），耀斑和日冕物质抛射基本知识和概述。 第二章，利用TRACE和SOHO的EUV 紫外像，SOHO/MDI 96分钟纵向磁图，BBSOH$\alpha$像，GOES软X-ray流量, 研究了太阳活动区暗条爆发与磁流浮现、磁场对消、耀斑、日冕物质抛射的关系。 第三章，利用TRACE的白光和EUV像，SOHO/MDI的96分钟和1分钟纵向磁图，RHESSI的 25-50 keV 像，GOES软X-ray流量, SOHO的EIT和LASCO C2的白光观测，研究了活动区10484中两个小黑子碰撞引发两个连续M级耀斑和日冕物质抛射。 第四章，利用TRACE的白光和EUV像，SOHO/MDI的96分钟纵向磁图，GOES软X-ray流量, SOHO的EIT和LASCO C2的白光观测。研究了太阳黑子旋转运动和S型暗条的形成、爆发及耀斑和日冕物质抛射的关系。 第五章，对全文进行了总结和展望。 Other Abstract The Sun is the nearest star to our earth, as an ordinary member of the star family in the cosmos. Because of this, the investigation of the Sun is very important for studying the formation, the evolution,the structure and the outer atmosphere of the stars. More importantly, the third satellite of the Sun--the earth gives birth to human beings. Furthermore, the activities of the Sun and its periodic variety could threaten the living vironment of human beings. The investigation of the sunspot activity and solar eruptions is the keystone issue in solar physics. The relationship between the sunspot formation, its magnetic field evolution, and solar eruptions is not well derstood. The magnetic emergence, the magnetic cancellation, and the sunspot motion can affect the atmosphere of the active region and even produce flares, coronal mass ejections, filament eruptions, surges and so on. Especially, the large solar eruptions toward the earth can produce a big influence on the sun-earth space weather. The fierce activities, such as flares, coronal mass ejection (CME) and so on, could result in the perturbation of the magnetic field of the earth and its ionosphere, the interruption of the wireless transportation, the destroy of the power supply, the trouble in the space probes, the safety of the airman, the development of the space projection. Consequently, the investigation of the origin and the essence of the various activities is very important not only to science but also to human beings.The observation of the Sun is expanded from the single wavelength based on the ground station to the multi-wavelength composed ground and space stations. From the rocket to Yohkoh, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Transition Region and Coronal Explorer, Hinode, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, Solar Dynamics Observatory satellites, these spacecrafts can observe the Sun by more wavelengths, more roundly, more detail and cause great achievements.This thesis is dedicated to the study of the evolution of active region and related solar eruptions, especially the exploration of the origin of solar activity by using a great deal of data obtained both by space and ground-based telescopes. It is structured as follow: In chapter one, on the base of surveying a number of references, we summarize the basic knowledge to sunspots, filaments, flares, and coronal mass ejections.In chapter two, we investigate the relationship between the flares, coronal mass ejections，magnetic emergence and magnetic cancellation by using the data from TRACE, SOHO, BBSO, GOES. In chapter three, we do research on the successive solar eruptions triggered by the collision between two small sunspots with opposite polarities and motional directions in active region NOAA 10484 by using the data of TRACE, SOHO/MDI, SOHO/LASCO, GOES, and RHESSI. In chapter four, we try to find the relationship between the sunspot rotation, the formation and the eruption of an active-region filament associated with a C7.3 flare and a halo CME in active region NOAA 08858 on Feb 10, 2000 by using the GOES12 soft X-ray flux, TRACE WL, 1600 \AA and 171 \AA images, SOHO/MDI 96-min magnetograms, and SOHO/LASCO C2 images. Finally, we describe the conclusions from the above studies and the future of our work. Subject Area 天文学 Pages 108 Language 中文 Document Type 学位论文 Identifier http://ir.ynao.ac.cn/handle/114a53/6615 Collection 太阳物理研究组 Recommended CitationGB/T 7714 闫晓理. 太阳活动区磁场变化及其相关爆发的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院（云南天文台）,2012.
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