YNAO OpenIR  > 丽江天文观测站(南方基地)
Alternative TitleObserving System Integration of Mid-Size Telescope
Thesis Advisor刘忠
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院(云南天文台)
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline天文技术与方法
Keyword光学望远镜 天文仪器 观测系统
Abstract口径2米至4米左右的通用型光学(近红外)望远镜的地理分布范围广,仪器配置多样,观测时间分配灵活,它们与大型天文设备形成互补,在实测天文研究中起到非常重要的作用。对一台通用型望远镜来讲,观测和运行的水平体现在其产生的科研成果上。除了口径、分辨率等性能指标、所处的台址观测条件外,在观测和使用过程中还有很多因素影响着观测数据的质量和数量,并影响其科研成果。这些因素包括望远镜所配置的观测仪器、设备性能的变化、运行的可靠性、控制和数据处理的自动化程度、研究课题的选择、运行和管理水平等。 将望远镜看成孤立的设备来单独控制和管理已无法满足现代天文观测追求高质量观测数据的要求。本文从天文技术的角度,把通用望远镜与其附属仪器、软件系统、观测环境等作为一整个观测系统进行研究,围绕着如何在望远镜建成后提高观测数据的质与量,进而提高科学产出这一目的,基于丽江2.4米望远镜开展了以下创新工作:在丽江2.4米望远镜上通过实现卡焦多终端自动快速切换,优化仪器与科学目标的匹配和观测时间的分配;通过指向模型校正、提高自动导星系统性能来提高观测的寻星效率和长曝光数据质量;通过主镜主动支撑等措施,随时保证望远镜像质;通过仪器控制及观测控制系统的软件集成,提高控制的自动化程度和观测效率;通过监测和控制观测环境,匹配科学目标与观测条件,增加夜间观测时间的利用效率。
Other AbstractThe investment, instrument as well as technique of mid-size Optical/IR (with diameter 2~4 m) astronomical telescopes are hardly comparable to those of large ground-based telescopes. But their wide geographical distributions and their flexibilities of the observing time allocation make them in a unique position. They now act as an indispensable complement to the large scale telescopes and play significant roles in observational astrophysical studies. For a general-purpose optical telescope, the scientific output reflects its operational performance. The thesis proposes the concept of telescope observational system integration according to the requirements for both the astronomical observations and the operation of the observing sites, which treats the mid-size telescope and its accessory instruments, software, observing weather condition and its operation as an integral unit and studies the key factors which affect the telescope’s scientific output. Aside from the telescope’s diameter, resolution and the observing weather conditions, these key factors also include the optical efficiency, image quality, and positioning accuracy. In addition, many other factors, such as the quality of the optical systems and detectors of the accessory equipments, the reliability of the long-term operation of relevant instruments, the control and management software, the choice of specific astronomical projects, and even the operation of the observatory/site, are closely related to the scientific output. The efficiency of the observational system, data quality and quantity are heavily influenced by all the above mentioned factors. The practical experiences (such as the construction, scientific observation, maintenance, upgrade, together with the operation of the observing site) with the Lijiang 2.4m telescope suggest that it is impossible to meet the modern astronomical requirement if we just control and run the telescope as an isolated equipment. On the contrary, in order to satisfy the stringent requirement of modern astronomical observations, we have to combine the following systems together, i.e., the telescope and instrument system, observing control system, auxiliary system, instrument control system, weather monitoring system, observation control system. In parallel, we also have to optimize the observing time application, data release and management. We introduce the study on the active mirror support, pointing correction, autoguiding, rapid instrument automatic exchanging, integretion on instrument control and observation control system, data redunction and archiving and release, site condition monitor and local seeing control on Lijiang 2.4-m telescope, to improve the performances and efficiency of the observing system with the telescope. Without loss of generality, the system integration study presented in this thesis based on the experiment platform of the Lijiang 2.4m telescope represent a typical study for the whole class of mid-size optical telescopes.
Subject Area天文学
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
范玉峰. 中型望远镜观测系统集成[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院(云南天文台),2014.
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