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大口径天文光学望远镜主镜镀膜的研究
其他题名Research on Mirror Coating of Large Diameter Astronomical Optics telescope
伦宝利
学位类型博士
导师刘忠
2013-05-31
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院(云南天文台)
学位授予地点北京
学位专业天文技术与方法
关键词镀膜 大口径天文光学望远镜 主镜 铝膜 保护膜 均匀性 薄膜生长
摘要大口径天文光学望远镜工作时,主镜直接与大气接触,指向天空。长期观测下来,大气中的污染物如灰尘颗粒和酸性颗粒落到主镜上不断累积,降低望远镜主镜的反射率并腐蚀镜面金属反射膜,使得主镜面的漫反射加强,进入系统探测器的杂散光加大。通过定期对主镜进行清洗的办法可适当缓解主镜光学性能的降低速度。为了使天文望远镜保持最佳的观测效果,需要每隔2-3年,对大口径天文光学望远镜主镜重新镀反射膜一次。本论文利用国内第一台自上向下,蒸镀天文望远镜主镜铝反射膜的大型镀膜机ZZ3200对天文望远镜主镜镀膜展开了深入而又全面的研究,讨论了天文望远镜主镜反射膜的膜层材料、均匀性、分子动力学模拟等镀膜技术相关问题,研究了镀膜过程中的主镜室结构、镀膜机控制参数、旧膜脱膜、清洗等问题,最后针对目前国内拥有最大的单块天文主镜的丽江2.4米望远镜主镜镀膜开展研究工作,最终完成丽江2.4米望远镜主镜镀膜工作。论文首先对天文望远镜主镜金属反射膜材料的选择,结合ZZ3200镀膜机蒸发源布局讨论了铝反射膜的膜厚不均匀性及不均匀性对望远镜成像质量的影响。然后对天文望远镜主镜的保护膜进行了研究,分别分析了保护膜对主镜反射率的影响,和保护膜对天文光学望远镜主镜旧膜脱膜的影响。利用ZZ3200镀膜机,分别对天文望远镜主镜镀制铝反射膜时铝膜和保护膜分子动力学过程进行分析。以丽江2.4米望远镜主镜镀膜整个过程进行规划,包括镀膜前期准备,镀膜过程中的旧膜脱膜、镀膜机参数控制等关键问题进行了讨论,形成了固定的工艺文档。基于上述分析研究,于2012年10月,使用ZZ3200镀膜机,完成了对丽江2.4米望远镜主镜的镀膜工作,并定制云南天文台2.4米望远镜主镜镀膜的技术规范及相关工艺卡片,可为我国以后大型天文望远镜主镜镀膜工作提供参考与借鉴。经过陪镀片测试,主镜反射膜在350 ~1100 nm范围内平均反射率87.16%。丽江2.4米望远镜主镜完成后,无论成像观测还是光谱实测,观测结果表明极限星等提高超过1个星等。
其他摘要When the large aperture optics telescope is working, the primary mirror contact with the atmosphere directly, pointing to the sky. After observation for long time, Some contamination such as dust particles in the atmosphere will continuously fell to accumulate on the primary mirror, deteriorate the reflectance of the telescope’s primary mirror, strengthen the stray light from primary mirror surface to the system detector. Cleaning the primary mirror regularly can Appropriate mitigation the speed of reduction of the of the primary mirror’s optical properties. In order to maintain the best observation effect on the astronomical telescope , every 2-3 years , recoating the primary mirror in large aperture astronomical optical telescope. In this dissertation,a research of coating the primary mirror in large aperture astronomical optical telescope is presented, use the first coating machine ZZ3200, which can deposition aluminum reflective film for large telescope primary mirror from the top to down. Discuss some problems respectively,such as the reflective film layer’s material, uniformity , molecular dynamics simulations of coating process, the structure of the vacuum chamber, the transporting and lifting of the primary mirror, old film stripping, cleaning for coating, etc. Finally, for coating the Lijiang 2.4-meter telescope primary mirror, which has the largest single block primary mirror in China in present, make the process arrangement about the primary mirror coating process of Lijiang 2.4 -meter telescope, and the security management and other documents, finally complete the coating of primary mirror in Lijiang 2.4 -meter telescope. Firstly, discuss the choice of material for coating metal reflecting film to primary mirror in astronomical optical telescope, depend on the layout of evaporation source in the ZZ3200 coating machine, discuss the nonuniformity of thickness of the Al coating, and the influence from the nonuniformity of thickness of the Al coating to the imaging quality of telescope. Study the protected film of the primary mirror of astronomical optical telescope, analyse the influence from protected layer to the reflectance of the primary mirror, from protected layer to the old film stripping. Use the structure of ZZ3200 coating machine, make molecular dynamics simulations of coating process. Make the process arrangement about the primary mirror coating process of Lijiang 2.4 -meter telescope, and the security management and other documents. Based on the above analysis, we complete the work of coating the primary mirror in Lijiang 2.4 -meter telescope use the ZZ3200 coating machine in October 2012, And customize in yunnan observatory 2.4 m telescope primary mirror coating specification and related process card. This research work will provide the reference for large astronomical telescope primary mirror coating in China In the future. By measurement of the accompany plated glass, the average reflectance in the range of 350 to 1100 nm is 87.16%. After complete the Al coating to primary mirror in Lijiang 2.4 -meter telescope, observation results show that the limiting magnitude increase more than one magnitude both imaging observation and spectrum measurement.
学科领域天文学
页数91
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ynao.ac.cn/handle/114a53/5567
专题丽江天文观测站(南方基地)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
伦宝利. 大口径天文光学望远镜主镜镀膜的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院(云南天文台),2013.
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