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Design and Testing of the Front-End Electronics of WCDA in LHAASO
Aharonian, F.1,2; An, Q.3,4; Axikegu5; Bai, L. X.6; Bai, Y. X.7,8; Bao, Y. W.9; Bastieri, D.10; Bi, X. J.7,8,11; Bi, Y. J.7,8; Cai, H.12; Cai, J. T.10; Cao, Z.3,4; Cao, Z.3,4; Chang, J.13; Chang, J. F.7,8,14; Chang, X. C.7,8; Chen, B. M.15; Chen, J.6; Chen, L.5; Chen, L.7,8,11; Chen, L.16; Chen, M. J.7,8; Chen, M. L.7,8,14; Chen, Q. H.5; Chen, S. H.7,8,11; Chen, S. Z.7,8; Chen, T. L.17; Chen, X. L.7,8,11; Chen, Y.9; Cheng, N.7,8; Cheng, Y. D.7,8; Cui, S. W.15; Cui, X. H.18; Cui, Y. D.19; Dai, B. Z.20; Dai, H. L.7,8,14; Dai, Z. G.9; Danzengluobu17; Dong, R. S.3,4; Dong, X. J.7,8; Fan, J. H.10; Fan, Y. Z.13; Fan, Z. X.7,8; Fang, J.20; Fang, K.7,8,11; Feng, C. F.21; Feng, L.13; Feng, S. H.7,8; Feng, Y. L.13; Gao, B.7,8; Gao, C. D.21; Gao, Q.17; Gao, W.21; Ge, M. M.20; Geng, L. S.7,8; Gong, G. H.22; Gou, Q. B.7,8; Gu, J. L.3,4; Gu, M. H.7,8,14; Guo, J. G.7,8,11; Guo, X. L.5; Guo, Y. Q.7,8; Guo, Y. Y.7,8,11,13; Han, Y. A.23; He, H. H.7,8,11; He, H. N.13; He, J. C.7,8,11; He, S. L.10; He, X. B.19; He, Y.5; He, Z. Q.3,4; Heller, M.24; Hor, Y. K.19; Hou, C.7,8; Hou X(侯贤)25; Hu, H. B.7,8,11; Hu, S.6; Hu, S. C.7,8,11; Hu, X. J.22; Huang, D. H.5; Huang, Q. L.7,8; Huang, W. H.21; Huang, X. T.21; Huang, Z. C.5; Ji, F.7,8; Ji, X. L.7,8,14; Jia, H. Y.5; Jiang, K.3,4; Jiang, Z. J.20; Jin, C.7,8,11; Kuleshov, D.26; Levochkin, K.26; Li, B. B.15; Li, C.3,4; Li, C.7,8; Li, F.7,8,14; Li, H. B.7,8; Li, H. C.7,8; Li, H. Y.13,27; Li, J.7,8; Li, K.7,8; Li, W. L.21; Li, X.3,4; Li, X.5; Li, X. R.7,8; Li, Y.6; Li, Y. Z.7,8,11; Li, Z.7,8; Li, Z.16; Liang, E. W.28; Liang, Y. F.28; Lin, S. J.19; Liu, B.27; Liu, C.7,8; Liu, D.21; Liu, H.5; Liu, H. D.23; Liu, J.7,8; Liu, J. L.16; Liu, J. S.19; Liu, J. Y.7,8; Liu, M. Y.17; Liu, R. Y.9; Liu, S. M.13; Liu, W.7,8; Liu, Y. N.22; Liu, Z. X.6; Long, W. J.5; Lu, R.20; Lv, H. K.7,8; Ma, B. Q.29; Ma, L. L.7,8; Ma, X. H.7,8; Mao JR(毛基荣)25; Masood, A.5; Mitthumsiri, W.30; Montaruli, T.24; Nan, Y. C.21; Pang, B. Y.5; Pattarakijwanich, P.30; Pei, Z. Y.10; Piazzoli, B. D’Ettorre31; Qi, M. Y.7,8; Qin, J. J.3,4; Ruffolo, D.30; Rulev, V.26; Sáiz, A.30; Shao, L.15; Shchegolev, O.26,32; Sheng, X. D.7,8; Shi, J. R.7,8; Song, C. X.3,4; Song, H. C.29; Stenkin, Yu. V.26,32; Stepanov, V.26; Sun, Q. N.5; Sun, X. N.28; Sun, Z. B.33; Tam, P. H. T.19; Tang, Z. B.3,4; Tian, W. W.18; Volpe, D. della24; Wang, B. D.7,8; Wang, C.25; Wang, H.5; Wang, H. G.10; Wang JC(王建成)25; Wang, J. S.16; Wang, L. P.21; Wang, L. Y.7,8; Wang, R. N.5; Wang, W.12; Wang, W.19; Wang, X. G.28; Wang, X. J.7,8; Wang, X. Y.9; Wang, Y. D.7,8; Wang, Y. J.7,8; Wang, Y. P.7,8,11; Wang, Z.7,8,14; Wang, Z.16; Wang, Z. H.6; Wang, Z. X.20; Wei, D. M.13; Wei, J. J.13; Wei, Y. J.7,8,11; Wen, T.20; Wu, C. Y.7,8; Wu, H. R.7,8; Wu, S.7,8; Wu, W. X.5; Wu, X. F.13; Xi, S. Q.5; Xia, J.5; Xia, J. J.5; Xiang, G. M.7,34; Xiao, G.7,8; Xiao, H. B.10; Xin, G. G.12; Xin, Y. L.5; Xing, Y.16; Xu, D. L.16; Xu, R. X.29; Xue, L.21; Yan DH(闫大海)25; Yan, X. B.35; Yang, C. W.6; Yang, F. F.7,8,14; Yang, J. Y.19; Yang, L. L.19; Yang, M. J.7,8; Yang, R. Z.27; Yang, S. B.20; Yao, Y. H.6; Yao, Z. G.7,8; Ye, Y. M.22; Yin, L. Q.7,8; Yin, N.21; You, X. H.7,8; You, Z. Y.7,8,11; Yu, Y. H.21; Yuan, Q.13; Zeng, H. D.13; Zeng, T. X.7,8,14; Zeng, W.20; Zeng, Z. K.7,8,11; Zha, M.7,8; Zhai, X. X.7,8; Zhang, B. B.9; Zhang, H. M.9; Zhang, H. Y.21; Zhang, J. L.18; Zhang, J. W.6; Zhang, L.15; Zhang, L.20; Zhang, L. X.10; Zhang, P. F.20; Zhang, P. P.15; Zhang, R.15; Zhang, S. R.15; Zhang, S. S.7,8; Zhang, X.9; Zhang, X. P.7,8; Zhang, Y.7,8; Zhang, Y.7,13; Zhang, Y. F.5; Zhang, Y. L.7,8; Zhao, B.5; Zhao, J.7,8; Zhao, L.3,4; Zhao, L. Z.15; Zhao, S. P.13,21; Zheng, F.33; Zheng, Y.5; Zhou, B.7,8; Zhou, H.16; Zhou, J. N.16; Zhou, P.9; Zhou, R.6; Zhou, S. Z.3,4; Zhou, X. X.5; Zhu, C. G.21; Zhu, F. R.5; Zhu, H.18; Zhu, K. J.7,8,11,14; Zuo, X.7,8
Source PublicationIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE
2021-08
Volume68Issue:8Pages:2257-2267
DOI10.1109/TNS.2021.3092739
Contribution Rank第25完成单位
Indexed BySCI
KeywordCharge measurement Clocks Dynamic range Gain measurement Detectors Field programmable gate arrays Cosmic rays Front-end electronics (FEE) large dynamic range Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) time and charge measurement water Cherenkov detector array (WCDA)
Abstract

Water Cherenkov detector array (WCDA) is one of the key parts of the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), the construction of which was completed by the end of 2020. The WCDA covers a 78 000-m(2) area and there exist 3120 large size photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in three ponds: 8-in PMTs are used in WCDA pond No. 1 and 20-in PMTs are used in ponds No. 2 and No. 3. The front-end electronics (FEE) system based on multigain measurement technique is designed to achieve both high-precision time and charge measurements over a large dynamic range from single photon electron (S.P.E.) to 4000 P.E. (for water pond No. 1)/1800 P.E. (for water ponds No. 2 and No. 3). To achieve a high-quality clock distribution and phase alignment as well as mixed transmission of data, clock, and commands in one fiber over a long distance, an enhanced white rabbit (WR) technique is used. Testing of all the 350 FEE modules for the WCDA is presented in this article. Test results indicate that the charge resolution is better than 20% at S.P.E. and 1% at 1800/4000 P.E. and the time resolution is better than 300 ps root mean square (rms), which successfully meets the application requirement. All the FEE modules have been fabricated and installed for the LHAASO WCDA from 2018 to 2020, and the initial commissioning operation indicates that the FEEs function well.

Funding ProjectNational Key Research and Development Program of China in China[2018YFA0404201] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China in China[2018YFA0404202] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China in China[2018YFA0404203] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China in China[2018YFA0404204] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11722545] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[12022502] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11905227] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[U1931112] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11635011] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11761141001] ; Thailand Science Research and Innovation in Thailand[RTA6280002] ; Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS ; CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP) ; Chengdu Management Committee of Tianfu New Area
Funding OrganizationNational Key Research and Development Program of China in China[2018YFA0404201, 2018YFA0404202, 2018YFA0404203, 2018YFA0404204] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11722545, 12022502, 11905227, U1931112, 11635011, 11761141001] ; Thailand Science Research and Innovation in Thailand[RTA6280002] ; Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS ; CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP) ; Chengdu Management Committee of Tianfu New Area
Language英语
Subject Area工程与技术科学基础学科 ; 核科学技术 ; 电子、通信与自动控制技术
MOST Discipline Catalogue工学 ; 工学::电子科学与技术(可授工学、理学学位) ; 工学::核科学与技术
SubtypeArticle
PublisherIEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Publication Place445 HOES LANE, PISCATAWAY, NJ 08855-4141 USA
ISSN0018-9499
URL查看原文
WOS IDWOS:000687247300101
WOS Research AreaEngineering ; Nuclear Science & Technology
WOS SubjectEngineering, Electrical & Electronic ; Nuclear Science & Technology
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Version出版稿
Identifierhttp://ir.ynao.ac.cn/handle/114a53/24550
Collection高能天体物理研究组
星系类星体研究组
Corresponding AuthorZhao, L.
Affiliation1.Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin 2, Ireland;
2.Max Planck Institut for Nuclear Physics, Saupfercheckweg 1, Germany;
3.State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China;
4.University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China;
5.School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China;
6.College of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China;
7.Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics, the Experimental Physics Division, and the Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;
8.TIANFU Cosmic Ray Research Center, Chengdu, Sichuan, China;
9.School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China;
10.Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China;
11.School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;
12.School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China;
13.Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China;
14.State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing, China;
15.College of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China;
16.Institute and the School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China;
17.Key Laboratory of Cosmic Rays, Tibet University, Ministry of Education, Lhasa, Tibet, China;
18.National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;
19.School of Physics and Astronomy and the School of Physics (Guangzhou), Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, China;
20.School of Physics and Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan, China;
21.Institute of Frontier and Interdisciplinary Science, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, China;
22.Tsinghua University, Beijing, China;
23.School of Physics and Microelectronics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China;
24.Faculté de Sciences, Université de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland;
25.Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China;
26.Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia;
27.School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China;
28.School of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, China;
29.School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China;
30.Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand;
31.Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Naples, Italy;
32.Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow, Russia;
33.National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;
34.Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China;
35.Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Recommended Citation
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Aharonian, F.,An, Q.,Axikegu,et al. Design and Testing of the Front-End Electronics of WCDA in LHAASO[J]. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE,2021,68(8):2257-2267.
APA Aharonian, F..,An, Q..,Axikegu.,Bai, L. X..,Bai, Y. X..,...&Zuo, X..(2021).Design and Testing of the Front-End Electronics of WCDA in LHAASO.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE,68(8),2257-2267.
MLA Aharonian, F.,et al."Design and Testing of the Front-End Electronics of WCDA in LHAASO".IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE 68.8(2021):2257-2267.
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