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Peta-electron volt gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula The LHAASO Collaboration
Cao, Zhen1,2,3; Aharonian, F.4,5; An, Q.6,7; Axikegu8; Bai, L.X.9; Bai, Y.X.1,3; Bao, Y.W.10; Bastieri, D.11; Bi, X.J.1,2,3; Bi, Y.J.1,3; Cai, H.12; Cai, J.T.11; Cao, Zhe6,7; Chang, J.13; Chang, J.F.1,3,6; Chen, B.M.14; Chen, E.S.1,2,3; Chen, J.9; Chen, Liang1,2,3; Chen, Liang15; Chen, Long8; Chen, M.J.1,3; Chen, M.L.1,3,6; Chen, Q.H.8; Chen, S.H.1,2,3; Chen, S.Z.1,3; Chen, T.L.16; Chen, X.L.1,2,3; Chen, Y.10; Cheng, N.1,3; Cheng, Y.D.1,3; Cui, S.W.14; Cui, X.H.17; Cui, Y.D.18; Piazzoli, B. D’Ettorre19; Dai, B.Z.20; Dai, H.L.1,3,6; Dai, Z.G.7; Danzengluobu16; Volpe, D. della21; Dong, X.J.1,3; Duan, K.K.13; Fan, J.H.11; Fan, Y.Z.13; Fan, Z.X.1,3; Fang, J.20; Fang, K.1,3; Feng, C.F.22; Feng, L.13; Feng, S.H.1,3; Feng, Y.L.13; Gao, B.1,3; Gao, C.D.22; Gao, L.Q.1,2,3; Gao, Q.16; Gao, W.22; Ge, M.M.20; Geng, L.S.1,3; Gong, G.H.23; Gou, Q.B.1,3; Gu, M.H.1,3,6; Guo, F.L.15; Guo, J.G.1,2,3; Guo, X.L.8; Guo, Y.Q.1,3; Guo, Y.Y.1,2,3,13; Han, Y.A.24; He, H.H.1,2,3; He, H.N.13; He, J.C.1,2,3; He, S.L.11; He, X.B.18; He, Y.8; Heller, M.21; Hor, Y.K.18; Hou, C.1,3; Hou X(侯贤)25; Hu, H.B.1,2,3; Hu, S.9; Hu, S.C.1,2,3; Hu, X.J.23; Huang, D.H.8; Huang, Q.L.1,3; Huang, W.H.22; Huang, X.T.22; Huang, X.Y.13; Huang, Z.C.8; Ji, F.1,3; Ji, X.L.1,3,6; Jia, H.Y.8; Jiang, K.6,7; Jiang, Z.J.20; Jin, C.1,2,3; Ke, T.1,3; Kuleshov, D.26; Levochkin, K.26; Li, B.B.14; Li, Cheng6,7; Li, Cong1,3; Li, F.1,3,6; Li, H.B.1,3; Li, H.C.1,3; Li, H.Y.7,13; Li, Jie1,3,6; Li, Jian7; Li, K.1,3; Li, W.L.22; Li, X.R.1,3; Li, Xin6,7; Li, Xin8; Li, Y.9; Li, Y.Z.1,2,3; Li, Zhe1,3; Li, Zhuo27; Liang, E.W.28; Liang, Y.F.28; Lin, S.J.18; Liu, B.7; Liu, C.1,3; Liu, D.22; Liu, H.8; Liu, H.D.24; Liu, J.1,3; Liu, J.L.29; Liu, J.S.18; Liu, J.Y.1,3; Liu, M.Y.16; Liu, R.Y.10; Liu, S.M.8; Liu, W.1,3; Liu, Y.11; Liu, Y.N.23; Liu, Z.X.9; Long, W.J.8; Lu, R.20; Lv, H.K.1,3; Ma, B.Q.27; Ma, L.L.1,3; Ma, X.H.1,3; Mao JR(毛基荣)25; Masood, A.8; Min, Z.1,3; Mitthumsiri, W.30; Montaruli, T.21; Nan, Y.C.22; Pang, B.Y.8; Pattarakijwanich, P.30; Pei, Z.Y.11; Qi, M.Y.1,3; Qi, Y.Q.14; Qiao, B.Q.1,3; Qin, J.J.7; Ruffolo, D.30; Rulev, V.26; ´, A. Saiz30; Shao, L.14; Shchegolev, O.26,31; Sheng, X.D.1,3; Shi, J.Y.1,3; Song, H.C.27; Stenkin, Yu.V.26,31; Stepanov, V.26; Su, Y.13; Sun, Q.N.8; Sun, X.N.28; Sun, Z.B.32; Tam, P.H.T.18; Tang, Z.B.6,7; Tian, W.W.2,17; Wang, B.D.1,3; Wang, C.32; Wang, H.8; Wang, H.G.11; Wang JC(王建成)25; Wang, J.S.29; Wang, L.P.22; Wang, L.Y.1,3; Wang, R.N.8; Wang, Wei18; Wang, Wei12; Wang, X.G.28; Wang, X.J.1,3; Wang, X.Y.10; Wang, Y.8; Wang, Y.D.1,3; Wang, Y.J.1,3; Wang, Y.P.1,2,3; Wang, Z.H.9; Wang, Z.X.20; Wang, Zhen29; Wang, Zheng1,3,6; Wei, D.M.13; Wei, J.J.13; Wei, Y.J.1,2,3; Wen, T.20; Wu, C.Y.1,3; Wu, H.R.1,3; Wu, S.1,3; Wu, W.X.8; Wu, X.F.13; Xi, S.Q.1,3; Xia, J.7,13; Xia, J.J.8; Xiang, G.M.2,15; Xiao, D.X.16; Xiao, G.1,3; Xiao, H.B.11; Xin, G.G.12; Xin, Y.L.8; Xing, Y.15; Xu, D.L.29; Xu, R.X.27; Xue, L.22; Yan DH(闫大海)25; Yan, J.Z.13; Yang, C.W.9; Yang, F.F.1,3,6; Yang, J.Y.18; Yang, L.L.18; Yang, M.J.1,3; Yang, R.Z.7; Yang, S.B.20; Yao, Y.H.9; Yao, Z.G.1,3; Ye, Y.M.23; Yin, L.Q.1,3; Yin, N.22; You, X.H.1,3; You, Z.Y.1,2,3; Yu, Y.H.22; Yuan, Q.13; Zeng, H.D.13; Zeng, T.X.1,3,6; Zeng, W.20; Zeng, Z.K.1,2,3; Zha, M.1,3; Zhai, X.X.1,3; Zhang, B.B.10; Zhang, H.M.10; Zhang, H.Y.22; Zhang, J.L.17; Zhang, J.W.9; Zhang, L.X.11; Zhang, Li20; Zhang, Lu14; Zhang, P.F.20; Zhang, P.P.14; Zhang, R.7,13; Zhang, S.R.14; Zhang, S.S.1,3; Zhang, X.10; Zhang, X.P.1,3; Zhang, Y.F.8; Zhang, Y.L.1,3; Zhang, Yi1,13; Zhang, Yong1,3; Zhao, B.8; Zhao, J.1,3; Zhao, L.6,7; Zhao, L.Z.14; Zhao, S.P.13,22; Zheng, F.32; Zheng, Y.8; Zhou, B.1,3; Zhou, H.29; Zhou, J.N.15; Zhou, P.10; Zhou, R.9; Zhou, X.X.8; Zhu, C.G.22; Zhu, F.R.8; Zhu, H.17; Zhu, K.J.1,2,3,6; Zuo, X.1,3
Source PublicationSCIENCE
Contribution Rank第25完成单位
Indexed BySCI

The Crab Nebula is a bright source of gamma rays powered by the Crab Pulsar's rotational energy through the formation and termination of a relativistic electron-positron wind. We report the detection of gamma rays from this source with energies from 5 x 10(-4) to 1.1 peta-electron volts with a spectrum showing gradual steepening over three energy decades. The ultrahigh-energy photons imply the presence of a peta-electron volt electron accelerator (a pevatron) in the nebula, with an acceleration rate exceeding 15% of the theoretical limit. We constrain the pevatron's size between 0.025 and 0.1 parsecs and the magnetic field to approximate to 110 microgauss. The production rate of peta-electron volt electrons, 2.5 x 10(36) ergs per second, constitutes 0.5% of the pulsar spin-down luminosity, although we cannot exclude a contribution of peta-electron volt protons to the production of the highest-energy gamma rays.

Funding ProjectNational Key R&D program of China[2018YFA0404201] ; National Key R&D program of China[2018YFA0404202] ; National Key R&D program of China[2018YFA0404203] ; National Key R&D program of China[2018YFA0404204] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[12022502] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11905227] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[U1831208] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[U1931112] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11635011] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11761141001] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11905240] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11675204] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11475190] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[U2031105] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[U1831129] ; Thailand Science Research and Innovation[RTA6280002] ; Chengdu Management Committee of Tianfu New Area
Funding OrganizationNational Key R&D program of China[2018YFA0404201, 2018YFA0404202, 2018YFA0404203, 2018YFA0404204] ; NSFCNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[12022502, 11905227, U1831208, U1931112, 11635011, 11761141001, 11905240, 11675204, 11475190, U2031105, U1831129] ; Thailand Science Research and Innovation[RTA6280002] ; Chengdu Management Committee of Tianfu New Area
Subject Area天文学 ; 天体物理学 ; 高能天体物理学
MOST Discipline Catalogue理学 ; 理学::天文学
Publication Place1200 NEW YORK AVE, NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20005 USA
WOS IDWOS:000679232100032
WOS Research AreaScience & Technology - Other Topics
WOS SubjectMultidisciplinary Sciences
Citation statistics
Cited Times:3[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorCao, Zhen; Aharonian, F.; Chen, S.Z.; Li, Cheng; Lin, S.J.; Liu, R.Y.; Wang, L.Y.; Yin, L.Q.; Zha, M.; Zhang, S.S.
Affiliation1.Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophyics & Experimental Physics Division & Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China;
2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China;
3.Tianfu Cosmic Ray Research Center, Chengdu, Sichuan, China;
4.Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, 2 Dublin, Ireland;
5.Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 103980, 69029 Heidelberg, Germany;
6.State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, China;
7.University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei, Anhui, China;
8.School of Physical Science and Technology & School of Information Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, 610031 Chengdu, Sichuan, China;
9.College of Physics, Sichuan University, 610065 Chengdu, Sichuan, China;
10.School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 210023 Nanjing, Jiangsu, China;
11.Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, 510006 Guangzhou, Guangdong, China;
12.School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072 Wuhan, Hubei, China;
13.Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210023 Nanjing, Jiangsu, China;
14.Hebei Normal University, 050024 Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China;
15.Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200030 Shanghai, China;
16.Key Laboratory of Cosmic Rays (Tibet University), Ministry of Education, 850000 Lhasa, Tibet, China;
17.National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China;
18.School of Physics and Astronomy & School of Physics (Guangzhou), Sun Yat-sen University, 519000 Zhuhai, Guangdong, China;
19.Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Universita di Napoli ` `‘Federico II”, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli, Italy.;
20.School of Physics and Astronomy, Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan, China;
21.D’epartement de Physique Nucl’eaire et Corpusculaire, Facult’e de Sciences, Universit’e de Geneve, 24 Quai ` Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland;
22.Institute of Frontier and Interdisciplinary Science, Shandong University, 266237 Qingdao, Shandong, China;
23.Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China;
24.School of Physics and Microelectronics, Zhengzhou University, 450001 Zhengzhou, Henan, China;
25.Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650216 Kunming, Yunnan, China;
26.Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow, Russia;
27.School of Physics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing, China;
28.School of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi University, 530004 Nanning, Guangxi, China;
29.Tsung-Dao Lee Institute & School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai, China;
30.Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 10400 Bangkok, Thailand;
31.Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow, Russia;
32.National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing, China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Cao, Zhen,Aharonian, F.,An, Q.,et al. Peta-electron volt gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula The LHAASO Collaboration[J]. SCIENCE,2021,373(6553):425-+.
APA Cao, Zhen.,Aharonian, F..,An, Q..,Axikegu.,Bai, L.X..,...&Zuo, X..(2021).Peta-electron volt gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula The LHAASO Collaboration.SCIENCE,373(6553),425-+.
MLA Cao, Zhen,et al."Peta-electron volt gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula The LHAASO Collaboration".SCIENCE 373.6553(2021):425-+.
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