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Ultrahigh-energy photons up to 1.4 petaelectronvolts from 12 γ-ray Galactic sources
Cao, Zhen1,2,3; Aharonian, F. A.4,5; An, Q.6,7; Axikegu8; Bai, L. X.9; Bai, Y. X.1,2; Bao, Y. W.10; Bastieri, D.11; Bi, X. J.1,2,3; Bi, Y. J.1,2; Cai, H.12; Cai, J. T.11; Cao, Zhe6,7; Chang, J.13; Chang, J. F.1,2,6; Chang, X. C.1,2; Chen, B. M.14; Chen, J.9; Chen, L.1,2,3; Chen, Liang15; Chen, Long8; Chen, M. J.1,2; Chen, M. L.1,2,6; Chen, Q. H.8; Chen, S. H.1,2,3; Chen, S. Z.1,2; Chen, T. L.16; Chen, X. L.1,2,3; Chen, Y.10; Cheng, N.1,2; Cheng, Y. D.1,2; Cui, S. W.14; Cui, X. H.17; Cui, Y. D.18; Dai, B. Z.19; Dai, H. L.1,2,13; Dai, Z. G.10; Danzengluobu16; della Volpe, D.20; D′Ettorre Piazzoli, B.21; Dong, X. J.1,2; Fan, J. H.11; Fan, Y. Z.13; Fan, Z. X.1,2; Fang, J.19; Fang, K.1,2; Feng, C. F.22; Feng, L.13; Feng, S. H.1,2; Feng, Y. L.13; Gao, B.1,2; Gao, C. D.22; Gao, Q.16; Gao, W.22; Ge, M. M.19; Geng, L. S.1,2; Gong, G. H.23; Gou, Q. B.1,2; Gu, M. H.1,2,6; Guo, J. G.1,2,3; Guo, X. L.8; Guo, Y. Q.1,2; Guo, Y. Y.1,2,3,13; Han, Y. A.24; He, H. H.1,2,3; He, H. N.13; He, J. C.1,2,3; He, S. L.11; He, X. B.18; He, Y.8; Heller, M.20; Hor, Y. K.18; Hou, C.1,2; Hou X(侯贤)25; Hu, H. B.1,2,3; Hu, S.9; Hu, S. C.1,2,3; Hu, X. J.23; Huang, D. H.8; Huang, Q. L.1,2; Huang, W. H.22; Huang, X. T.22; Huang, Z. C.8; Ji, F.1,2; Ji, X. L.1,2,6; Jia, H. Y.8; Jiang, K.6,7; Jiang, Z. J.19; Jin, C.1,2,3; Kuleshov, D.26; Levochkin, K.26; Li, B. B.14; Li, Cong1,2; Li, Cheng6,7; Li, F.1,2,6; Li, H. B.1,2; Li, H. C.1,2; Li, H. Y.7,13; Li, J.1,2,6; Li, K.1,2; Li, W. L.22; Li, X.6,7; Li, Xin8; Li, X. R.1,2; Li, Y.9; Li, Y. Z.1,2,3; Li, Zhe1,2; Li, Zhuo27; Liang, E. W.28; Liang, Y. F.28; Lin, S. J.18; Liu, B.7; Liu, C.1,2; Liu, D.22; Liu, H.8; Liu, H. D.24; Liu, J.1,2; Liu, J. L.29,30; Liu, J. S.18; Liu, J. Y.1,2; Liu, M. Y.16; Liu, R. Y.10; Liu, S. M.13; Liu, W.1,2; Liu, Y. N.23; Liu, Z. X.9; Long, W. J.8; Lu, R.19; Lv, H. K.1,2; Ma, B. Q.27; Ma, L. L.1,2; Ma, X. H.1,2; Mao JR(毛基荣)25; Masood, A.8; Mitthumsiri, W.31; Montaruli, T.20; Nan, Y. C.22; Pang, B. Y.8; Pattarakijwanich, P.31; Pei, Z. Y.11; Qi, M. Y.1,2; Ruffolo, D.31; Rulev, V.26; Sáiz, A.31; Shao, L.14; Shchegolev, O.26,32; Sheng, X. D.1,2; Shi, J. R.1,2; Song, H. C.27; Stenkin, Yu. V.26,32; Stepanov, V.26; Sun, Q. N.8; Sun, X. N.28; Sun, Z. B.33; Tam, P. H.18; Tang, Z. B.6,7; Tian, W. W.3,17; Wang, B. D.1,2; Wang, C.33; Wang, H.8; Wang, H. G.11; Wang JC(王建成)25; Wang, J. S.29,30; Wang, L. P.33; Wang, L. Y.1,2; Wang, R. N.8; Wang, W.18; Wang, W.12; Wang, X. G.28; Wang, X. J.1,2; Wang, X. Y.10; Wang, Y. D.1,2; Wang, Y. J.1,2; Wang, Y. P.1,2,3; Wang, Zheng1,2,6; Wang, Zhen29,30; Wang, Z. H.9; Wang, Z. X.19; Wei, D. M.13; Wei, J. J.13; Wei, Y. J.1,2,3; Wen, T.19; Wu, C. Y.1,2; Wu, H. R.1,2; Wu, S.1,2; Wu, W. X.8; Wu, X. F.13; Xi, S. Q.8; Xia, J.7,13; Xia, J. J.8; Xiang, G. M.3,15; Xiao, G.12; Xiao, H. B.11; Xin, G. G.12; Xin, Y. L.8; Xing, Y.15; Xu, D. L.29,30; Xu, R. X.27; Xue, L.22; Yan DH(闫大海)25; Yang, C. W.9; Yang, F. F.(6,1,2,); Yang, J. Y.18; Yang, L. L.18; Yang, M. J.1,2; Yang, R. Z.7; Yang, S. B.19; Yao, Y. H.9; Yao, Z. G.1,2; Ye, Y. M.23; Yin, L. Q.1,2; Yin, N.22; You, X. H.1,2; You, Z. Y.1,2,3; Yu, Y. H.22; Yuan, Q.13; Zeng, H. D.13; Zeng, T. X.1,2,6; Zeng, W.19; Zeng, Z. K.1,2,3; Zha, M.1,2; Zhai, X. X.1,2; Zhang, B. B.10; Zhang, H. M.10; Zhang, H. Y.22; Zhang, J. L.17; Zhang, J. W.9; Zhang, L.14; Zhang, Li19; Zhang, L. X.11; Zhang, P. F.19; Zhang, P. P.14; Zhang, R.7,13; Zhang, S. R.14; Zhang, S. S.1,2; Zhang, X.10; Zhang, X. P.1,2; Zhang, Yong1,2; Zhang, Yi1,13; Zhang, Y. F.8; Zhang, Y. L.1,2; Zhao, B.8; Zhao, J.1,2; Zhao, L.6,7; Zhao, L. Z.14; Zhao, S. P.13,22; Zheng, F.33; Zheng, Y.8; Zhou, B.1,2; Zhou, H.29,30; Zhou, J. N.15; Zhou, P.10; Zhou, R.9; Zhou, X. X.8; Zhu, C. G.22; Zhu, F. R.8; Zhu, H.17; Zhu, K. J.1,2,3,6; Zuo, X.1,2
Source PublicationNature
Contribution Rank第25完成单位
Indexed BySCI ; EI

The extension of the cosmic-ray spectrum beyond 1 petaelectronvolt (PeV; 1015 electronvolts) indicates the existence of the so-called PeVatrons—cosmic-ray factories that accelerate particles to PeV energies. We need to locate and identify such objects to find the origin of Galactic cosmic rays1. The principal signature of both electron and proton PeVatrons is ultrahigh-energy (exceeding 100 TeV) γ radiation. Evidence of the presence of a proton PeVatron has been found in the Galactic Centre, according to the detection of a hard-spectrum radiation extending to 0.04 PeV (ref. 2). Although γ-rays with energies slightly higher than 0.1 PeV have been reported from a few objects in the Galactic plane3–6, unbiased identification and in-depth exploration of PeVatrons requires detection of γ-rays with energies well above 0.1 PeV. Here we report the detection of more than 530 photons at energies above 100 teraelectronvolts and up to 1.4 PeV from 12 ultrahigh-energy γ-ray sources with a statistical significance greater than seven standard deviations. Despite having several potential counterparts in their proximity, including pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants and star-forming regions, the PeVatrons responsible for the ultrahigh-energy γ-rays have not yet been firmly localized and identified (except for the Crab Nebula), leaving open the origin of these extreme accelerators. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

Funding ProjectNational Key R&D programme of China[2018YFA0404201] ; National Key R&D programme of China[2018YFA0404202] ; National Key R&D programme of China[2018YFA0404203] ; National Key R&D programme of China[2018YFA0404204] ; NSFC[12022502] ; NSFC[11905227] ; NSFC[U1931112] ; NSFC[11635011] ; NSFC[11761141001] ; NSFC[U2031105] ; Thailand Science Research and Innovation[RTA6280002] ; Chengdu Management Committee of Tianfu New Area
Funding OrganizationNational Key R&D programme of China[2018YFA0404201, 2018YFA0404202, 2018YFA0404203, 2018YFA0404204] ; NSFC[12022502, 11905227, U1931112, 11635011, 11761141001, U2031105] ; Thailand Science Research and Innovation[RTA6280002] ; Chengdu Management Committee of Tianfu New Area
Subject Area天文学 ; 天体物理学 ; 高能天体物理学
MOST Discipline Catalogue理学 ; 理学::天文学
WOS IDWOS:000651348600001
WOS Research AreaScience & Technology - Other Topics
WOS SubjectMultidisciplinary Sciences
EI Accession Number6314507
EI Classification Number901 Geobase: Related Topics
Citation statistics
Cited Times:14[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorCao, Zhen; Aharonian, F. A.; Chen, S. Z.; Liu, R. Y.; Yang, R. Z.
Affiliation1.Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics & Experimental Physics Division & Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;
2.TIANFU Cosmic Ray Research Center, Chengdu, Sichuan, China;
3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;
4.Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, Ireland;
5.Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg, Germany;
6.State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing, China;
7.University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China;
8.School of Physical Science and Technology & School of Information Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China;
9.College of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China;
10.School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China;
11.Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China;
12.School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China;
13.Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China;
14.Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, China;
15.Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China;
16.Key Laboratory of Cosmic Rays (Tibet University), Ministry of Education, Lhasa, Tibet, China;
17.National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China;
18.School of Physics and Astronomy & School of Physics (Guangzhou), Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China;
19.School of Physics and Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming, China;
20.Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, Faculté de Sciences, Université de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland;
21.Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Napoli
22.Institute of Frontier and Interdisciplinary Science, Shandong University, Qingdao, China;
23.Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China;
24.School of Physics and Microelectronics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China;
25.Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China;
26.Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia;
27.School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China;
28.School of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, China;
29.Tsung-Dao Lee Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China;
30.School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China;
31.Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand;
32.Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow, Russia;
33.National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Cao, Zhen,Aharonian, F. A.,An, Q.,et al. Ultrahigh-energy photons up to 1.4 petaelectronvolts from 12 γ-ray Galactic sources[J]. Nature,2021,594(7861):33-36.
APA Cao, Zhen.,Aharonian, F. A..,An, Q..,Axikegu.,Bai, L. X..,...&Zuo, X..(2021).Ultrahigh-energy photons up to 1.4 petaelectronvolts from 12 γ-ray Galactic sources.Nature,594(7861),33-36.
MLA Cao, Zhen,et al."Ultrahigh-energy photons up to 1.4 petaelectronvolts from 12 γ-ray Galactic sources".Nature 594.7861(2021):33-36.
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