YNAO OpenIR  > 南方基地
Monitoring the Morphology of M87* in 2009-2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope
Wielgus, Maciek1,2; Akiyama, Kazunori1,3,4,5; Blackburn, Lindy1,2; Chan, Chi-kwan6,7,8; Dexter, Jason9,10; Doeleman, Sheperd S.1,2; Fish, Vincent L.4; Issaoun, Sara11; Johnson, Michael D.1,2; Krichbaum, Thomas P.12; Lu, Ru-Sen12,13; Pesce, Dominic W.1,2; Wong, George N.14,15; Bower, Geoffrey C.16; Broderick, Avery E.17,18,19; Chael, Andrew20; Chatterjee, Koushik21; Gammie, Charles F.14,22; Georgiev, Boris18,19; Hada, Kazuhiro23,24; Loinard, Laurent25,26; Markoff, Sera21,27; Marrone, Daniel P.6,7; Plambeck, Richard28; Weintroub, Jonathan1,2; Dexter, Matthew28; MacMahon, David H. E.28; Wright, Melvyn28; Alberdi, Antxon29; Alef, Walter12; Asada, Keiichi30; Azulay, Rebecca12,31,32; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin12; Ball, David6,7; Balokovic, Mislav1,2; Barausse, Enrico33,34,35; Barrett, John4; Bintley, Dan36; Boland, Wilfred37; Bouman, Katherine L.1,2,38; Bremer, Michael39; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.11; Brissenden, Roger1,2; Britzen, Silke37; Broguiere, Dominique39; Bronzwaer, Thomas11; Byun, Do-Young40,41; Carlstrom, John E.3,42,43,44,45; Chatterjee, Shami46; Chen, Ming-Tang16; Chen, Yongjun13,47; Cho, Ilje40,41; Christian, Pierre2,6,7; Conway, John E.48; Cordes, James M.46; Crew, Geoffrey B.4; Cui, Yuzhu23,24; Davelaar, Jordy11; Laurentis, Mariafelicia De49,50,51; Deane, Roger52,53; Dempsey, Jessica36; Desvignes, Gregory54; Dzib, Sergio A.12; Eatough, Ralph P.12; Falcke, Heino11; Fomalont, Ed3; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel11; Friberg, Per36; Fromm, Christian M.50; Galison, Peter1,55,56; Garcia, Roberto39; Gentaz, Olivier39; Goddi, Ciriaco11,57; Gold, Roman17,58; Gomez, Jose L.29; Gomez-Ruiz, Arturo I.59,60; Gu, Minfeng13,61; Gurwell, Mark2; Hecht, Michael H.4; Hesper, Ronald62; Ho, Luis C.63,64; Ho, Paul30; Honma, Mareki23,24; Huang, Chih-Wei L.30; Huang, Lei13,61; Hughes, David H.65; Inoue, Makoto30; James, David J.66; Jannuzi, Buell T.6,7; Janssen, Michael11; Jeter, Britton18,19; Jiang, Wu13; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra67; Jorstad, Svetlana68,69; Jung, Taehyun40,41; Karami, Mansour17,18; Karuppusamy, Ramesh12; Kawashima, Tomohisa5; Keating, Garrett K.2; Kettenis, Mark70; Kim, Jae-Young12; Kim, Junhan6,7,38; Kim, Jongsoo40; Kino, Motoki5,71; Koay, Jun Yi30; Koch, Patrick M.30; Koyama, Shoko30; Kramer, Michael12; Kramer, Carsten39; Kuo, Cheng-Yu72; Lauer, Tod R.73; Lee, Sang-Sung40; Li, Yan-Rong74; Li, Zhiyuan75,76; Lindqvist, Michael48; Lico, Rocco12; Liu, Kuo12; Liuzzo, Elisabetta77; Lo, Wen-Ping27,78; Lobanov, Andrei P.12; Lonsdale, Colin4; MacDonald, Nicholas R.12; Mao JR(毛基荣)79,80,81; Marchili, Nicola12,77; Marscher, Alan P.68; Marti-Vidal, Ivan31,32; Matsushita, Satoki30; Matthews, Lynn D.4; Medeiros, Lia6,7,82; Menten, Karl M.12; Mizuno, Yosuke50,83; Mizuno, Izumi36; Moran, James M.1,2; Moriyama, Kotaro4,23; Moscibrodzka, Monika11; Mueller, Cornelia11,12; Musoke, Gibwa11,21; Nagai, Hiroshi5,24; Nagar, Neil M.84; Nakamura, Masanori30; Narayan, Ramesh1,2; Narayanan, Gopal85; Natarajan, Iniyan53; Nathanail, Antonios50; Neri, Roberto39; Ni, Chunchong19,21; Noutsos, Aristeidis12; Okino, Hiroki23,86; Olivares, Hector50; Ortiz-Leon, Gisela N.12; Oyama, Tomoaki23; Ozel, Feryal6,7; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.1,2; Park, Jongho30; Patel, Nimesh2; Pen, Ue-Li17,87,88,89; Pietu, Vincent39; PopStefanija, Aleksandar85; Porth, Oliver21,50; Prather, Ben14; Preciado-Lopez, Jorge A.17; Psaltis, Dimitrios6,7; Pu, Hung-Yi17,30,90; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh84; Rao, Ramprasad16; Rawlings, Mark G.36; Raymond, Alexander W.1,2; Rezzolla, Luciano50,91; Ripperda, Bart92,93; Roelofs, Freek11; Rogers, Alan4; Ros, Eduardo12; Rose, Mel6,7; Roshanineshat, Arash6,7; Rottmann, Helge12; Roy, Alan L.12; Ruszczyk, Chet4; Ryan, Benjamin R.15,94; Rygl, Kazi L. J.77; Sanchez, Salvador95; Sanchez-Arguelles, David60,65; Sasada, Mahito23,96; Savolainen, Tuomas97,98; Schloerb, F. Peter85; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich39; Shao, Lijing12,64; Shen, Zhiqiang13,47; Small, Des70; Sohn, Bong Won40,41,99; SooHoo, Jason4; Tazaki, Fumie23; Tiede, Paul18,19; Tilanus, Remo P. J.6,7,11,57,100; Titus, Michael4; Toma, Kenji101,102; Torne, Pablo12,95; Trent, Tyler6,7; Traianou, Efthalia12; Trippe, Sascha103; Tsuda, Shuichiro23; Bemmel, Ilse van70; van Langevelde, Huib Jan70,104; van Rossum, Daniel R.11; Wagner, Jan12; Wardle, John105; Ward-Thompson, Derek106; Wex, Norbert12; Wharton, Robert12; Wu, Qingwen107; Yoon, Doosoo21; Young, Andre11; Young, Ken2; Younsi, Ziri50,108; Yuan, Feng13,61,109; Yuan, Ye-Fei110; Zensus, J. Anton12; Zhao, Guangyao40; Zhao, Shan-Shan11,75; Zhu, Ziyan56
Source PublicationASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL
2020-09-01
Volume901Issue:1Pages:28
DOI10.3847/1538-4357/abac0d
Contribution Rank第79完成单位
Indexed BySCI
KeywordBlack holes Galaxy accretion disks Galaxy accretion Supermassive black holes Active galactic nuclei Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei Very long baseline interferometry Astronomy data modeling Radio interferometry
Abstract

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has recently delivered the first resolved images of M87*, the supermassive black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. These images were produced using 230 GHz observations performed in 2017 April. Additional observations are required to investigate the persistence of the primary image feature-a ring with azimuthal brightness asymmetry-and to quantify the image variability on event horizon scales. To address this need, we analyze M87* data collected with prototype EHT arrays in 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013. While these observations do not contain enough information to produce images, they are sufficient to constrain simple geometric models. We develop a modeling approach based on the framework utilized for the 2017 EHT data analysis and validate our procedures using synthetic data. Applying the same approach to the observational data sets, we find the M87* morphology in 2009-2017 to be consistent with a persistent asymmetric ring of similar to 40 mu as diameter. The position angle of the peak intensity varies in time. In particular, we find a significant difference between the position angle measured in 2013 and 2017. These variations are in broad agreement with predictions of a subset of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that quantifying the variability across multiple observational epochs has the potential to constrain the physical properties of the source, such as the accretion state or the black hole spin.

Funding ProjectAcademy of Finland[274477] ; Academy of Finland[284495] ; Academy of Finland[312496] ; European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action[731016] ; John Templeton Foundation[60477] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[PIA ACT172033] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[BASAL AFB-170002] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[ALMA-conicyt 31140007] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt projects)[1171506] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt projects)[3190878] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[104497] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[275201] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[279006] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[281692] ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM)[IN112417] ; European Research Council Synergy Grant BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes[610058] ; Generalitat Valenciana[APOSTD/2018/177] ; Generalitat Valenciana[CIDEGENT/2018/021] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-3561] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-5278] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF 947] ; National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)[JP17J08829] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[ZDBS-LY-SLH011] ; Leverhulme Trust ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18KK0090] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18K13594] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18K03656] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18H03721] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18K03709] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18H01245] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[25120007] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[105-2112-M-001-025-MY3] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[106-2112-M-001-011] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[106-2119-M-001-027] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-001-017] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-001-020] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-110-005] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant - Space Telescope Science Institute)[80NSSC17K0649] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400704] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400702] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0096454] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0352953] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0521233] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0705062] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0905844] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0922984] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1126433] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1140030] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[DGE-1144085] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207704] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207730] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207752] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[MRI-1228509] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[OPP-1248097] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1310896] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1312651] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1337663] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1440254] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1555365] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1715061] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1615796] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1716327] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[OISE-1743747] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1816420] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11573051] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11633006] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11650110427] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[10625314] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11721303] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11725312] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11933007] ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1A2A1033752] ; National Research Foundation of Korea[2015-R1D1A1A01056807] ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1D3A1066561] ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award[639.043.513] ; Spinoza Prize[SPI 78-409] ; South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council[2017-00648] ; Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation[17-12-01029] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[PGC2018-098915-B-C21] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2016-80889-P] ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia[SEV-2017-0709] ; National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDOE[89233218CNA000001] ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Universita e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA[CUP C52I13000140001] ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program[730562 RadioNet] ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Chandra[TM6-17006X] ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana)[CIDEGENT/2018/021] ; NSF[ACI-1548562] ; NSF[DBI-0735191] ; NSF[DBI-1265383] ; NSF[DBI-1743442] ; Compute Ontario ; Calcul Quebec ; Compute Canada ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China[2017YFA0402700] ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) ; MPG (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany) ; IGN (Instituto Geografico Nacional, Spain) ; State of Arizona ; National Science Foundation[PHY-1125897] ; NSF Physics Frontier Center grant[PHY-1125897] ; Kavli Foundation ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Academia Sinica ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Hubble Fellowship grant - Space Telescope Science Institute)[HST-HF2-51431.001-A] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)[NAS5-26555]
Funding OrganizationAcademy of Finland ; European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; John Templeton Foundation ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt projects) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; European Research Council Synergy Grant BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes ; Generalitat Valenciana ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Leverhulme Trust ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant - Space Telescope Science Institute) ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Spinoza Prize ; South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council ; Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDOE ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Universita e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Chandra ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) ; NSF ; Compute Ontario ; Calcul Quebec ; Compute Canada ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) ; MPG (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany) ; IGN (Instituto Geografico Nacional, Spain) ; State of Arizona ; National Science Foundation ; NSF Physics Frontier Center grant ; Kavli Foundation ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Academia Sinica ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Hubble Fellowship grant - Space Telescope Science Institute) ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Language英语
Subject Area天文学 ; 天体物理学 ; 高能天体物理学 ; 星系与宇宙学
MOST Discipline Catalogue理学 ; 理学::天文学
SubtypeArticle
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
Publication PlaceTEMPLE CIRCUS, TEMPLE WAY, BRISTOL BS1 6BE, ENGLAND
ISSN0004-637X
URL查看原文
WOS IDWOS:000576109200001
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS KeywordSUPERMASSIVE BLACK-HOLE ; ACCRETION ; VARIABILITY ; SIMULATIONS ; KINEMATICS ; MODEL ; M87
Citation statistics
Cited Times:9[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ynao.ac.cn/handle/114a53/23806
Collection南方基地
中国科学院天体结构与演化重点实验室
Corresponding AuthorWielgus, Maciek
Affiliation1.Harvard Univ, Black Hole Initiat, 20 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
2.Ctr Astrophys Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
3.Natl Radio Astron Observ, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA
4.MIT, Haystack Observ, 99 Millstone Rd, Westford, MA 01886 USA
5.Natl Astron Observ Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan
6.Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
7.Univ Arizona, Dept Astron, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
8.Univ Arizona, Data Sci Inst, 1230 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
9.Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA
10.Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA
11.Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Inst Math Astrophys & Particle Phys IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands
12.Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
13.Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China
14.Univ Illinois, Dept Phys, 1110 West Green St, Urbana, IL 61801 USA
15.Los Alamos Natl Lab, CCS 2, POB 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA
16.Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, 645 N Aohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 USA
17.Perimeter Inst Theoret Phys, 31 Caroline St North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5, Canada
18.Univ Waterloo, Dept Phys & Astron, 200 Univ Ave West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
19.Univ Waterloo, Waterloo Ctr Astrophys, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
20.Princeton Univ, Princeton Ctr Theoret Sci, Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA
21.Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands
22.Univ Illinois, Dept Astron, 1002 West Green St, Urbana, IL 61801 USA
23.Natl Astron Observ Japan, Mizusawa VLBI Observ, 2-12 Hoshigaoka, Mizusawa, Iwate 0230861, Japan
24.Grad Univ Adv Studies SOKENDAI, Dept Astron Sci, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan
25.Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Radioastron & Astrofis, Morelia 58089, Michoacan, Mexico
26.Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico
27.Univ Amsterdam, Gravitat Astroparticle Phys Amsterdam GRAPPA Inst, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands
28.Univ Calif Berkeley, Radio Astron Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA
29.Inst Astrofis Andalucia CSIC, Glorieta Astron S-N, E-18008 Granada, Spain
30.Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, 11F Astron Math Bldg,AS NTU 1,Sect 4,Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
31.Univ Valencia, Dept Astron & Astrofis, C Dr Moliner 50, E-46100 Valencia, Spain
32.Univ Valencia, Observ Astron, C Catedrat Jose Beltran 2, E-46980 Valencia, Spain
33.SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy
34.INFN Sez Trieste, Trieste, Italy
35.IFPU Inst Fundamental Phys Univers, Via Beirut 2, I-34014 Trieste, Italy
36.East Asian Observ, 660 N Aohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 USA
37.Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Astron NOVA, POB 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
38.CALTECH, 1200 East Calif Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA
39.Inst Radioastron Millimetr, 300 Rue Piscine, F-38406 St Martin Dheres, France
40.Korea Astron & Space Sci Inst, Daedeok Daero 776, Daejeon 34055, South Korea
41.Univ Sci & Technol, Gajeong Ro 217, Daejeon 34113, South Korea
42.Univ Chicago, Kavli Inst Cosmol Phys, 5640 South Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
43.Univ Chicago, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 5640 South Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
44.Univ Chicago, Dept Phys, 5720 South Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
45.Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, 5640 South Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
46.Cornell Univ, Cornell Ctr Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA
47.Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Radio Astron, Nanjing 210008, Peoples R China
48.Chalmers Univ Technol, Onsala Space Observ, Dept Space Earth & Environm, SE-43992 Onsala, Sweden
49.Compl Univ Monte S Angelo, Univ Napoli Federico II, Compl Univ Monte S Angelo, Dipartimento Fis E Pancini, Edificio G,Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples, Italy
50.Goethe Univ Frankfurt, Inst Theoret Phys, Max Von Laue Str 1, D-60438 Frankfurt, Germany
51.Compl Univ Monte S Angelo, INFN Sez Napoli, Edificio G,Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples, Italy
52.Univ Pretoria, Dept Phys, Lynnwood Rd, ZA-0083 Pretoria, South Africa
53.Rhodes Univ, Dept Phys & Elect, Ctr Radio Astron Techn & Technol, ZA-6140 Grahamstown, South Africa
54.Univ Paris, Univ PSL, Sorbonne Univ, LESIA,Observ Paris,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France
55.Harvard Univ, Dept Hist Sci, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
56.Harvard Univ, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
57.Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ Allegro, POB 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
58.Univ Southern Denmark, CP3 Origins, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark
59.Inst Nacl Astrofis Opt & Electr, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Puebla 72840, Mexico
60.Consejo Nacl Ciencia & Technol, Av Insurgentes 1582, Mexico City 03940, DF, Mexico
61.Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Res Galaxies & Cosmol, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China
62.Univ Groningen, NOVA Sub Mm Instrumentat Grp, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands
63.Peking Univ, Sch Phys, Dept Astron, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
64.Peking Univ, Kavli Inst Astron & Astrophys, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
65.Inst Nacl Astrofis Opt & Electr, Apartado Postal 51 y 216, Puebla Pue 72000, Mexico
66.ASTRAVEO LLC, POB 1668, Gloucester, MA 01931 USA
67.Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany
68.Boston Univ, Inst Astrophys Res, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 USA
69.St Petersburg Univ, Astron Inst, Univ Skij Pr 28, St Petersburg 198504, Russia
70.Joint Inst VLBI ERIC JIVE, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, NL-7991 PD Dwingeloo, Netherlands
71.Kogakuin Univ Technol & Engn, Acad Support Ctr, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 1920015, Japan
72.Natl Sun Yat Sen Univ, Phys Dept, 70 Lien Hai Rd, Kaosiung City 80424, Taiwan
73.Natl Opt Astron Observ, 950 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA
74.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst High Energy Phys, Key Lab Particle Astrophys, 19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing, Peoples R China
75.Nanjing Univ, Sch Astron & Space Sci, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China
76.Nanjing Univ, Key Lab Modern Astron & Astrophys, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China
77.INAF Ist Radioastron, Italian ALMA Reg Ctr, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy
78.Natl Taiwan Univ, Dept Phys, 1,Sect 4,Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
79.Chinese Acad Sci, Yunnan Observ, Kunming 650011, Yunnan, Peoples R China
80.Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Astron Mega Sci, 20A Datun Rd, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China
81.Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Struct & Evolut Celestial Objects, Kunming 650011, Yunnan, Peoples R China
82.Inst Adv Study, Sch Nat Sci, 1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, NJ 08540 USA
83.Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Tsung Dao Lee Inst, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China
84.Univ Concepcion, Astron Dept, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile
85.Univ Massachusetts, Dept Astron, Amherst, MA 01003 USA
86.Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Sci, Dept Astron, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan
87.Univ Toronto, Canadian Inst Theoret Astrophys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada
88.Univ Toronto, Dunlap Inst Astron & Astrophys, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada
89.Canadian Inst Adv Res, 180 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G IZ8, Canada
90.Natl Taiwan Normal Univ, Dept Phys, 88,Sec 4,Tingzhou Rd, Taipei 116, Taiwan
91.Trinity Coll Dublin, Sch Math, Dublin 2, Ireland
92.Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, Peyton Hall,Princeton, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA
93.Flatiron Inst, Ctr Computat Astrophys, 162 Fifth Ave, New York, NY 10010 USA
94.Los Alamos Natl Lab, Ctr Theoret Astrophys, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA
95.IRAM, Inst Radioastron Milimetr, Ave Div Pastora 7,Local 20, E-18012 Granada, Spain
96.Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan
97.Aalto Univ, Dept Elect & Nanoengn, PL 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
98.Aalto Univ, Metsahovi Radio Observ, Metsahovintie 114, FI-02540 Kylmala, Finland
99.Yonsei Univ, Dept Astron, Yonsei Ro 50, Seoul 03722, South Korea
100.Netherlands Org Sci Res NWO, Postbus 93138, NL-2509 AC The Hague, Netherlands
101.Tohoku Univ, Frontier Res Inst Interdisciplinary Sci, Sendai, Miyagi 9808578, Japan
102.Tohoku Univ, Astron Inst, Sendai, Miyagi 9808578, Japan
103.Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Seoul 08826, South Korea
104.Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Postbus 2300, NL-9513 RA Leiden, Netherlands
105.Brandeis Univ, Phys Dept, 415 South St, Waltham, MA 02453 USA
106.Univ Cent Lancashire, Jeremiah Horrocks Inst, Preston PR1 2HE, Lancs, England
107.Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Phys, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, Peoples R China
108.Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England
109.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Astron & Space Sci, 19A Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
110.Univ Sci & Technol China, Astron Dept, Hefei 230026, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Wielgus, Maciek,Akiyama, Kazunori,Blackburn, Lindy,et al. Monitoring the Morphology of M87* in 2009-2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope[J]. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,2020,901(1):28.
APA Wielgus, Maciek.,Akiyama, Kazunori.,Blackburn, Lindy.,Chan, Chi-kwan.,Dexter, Jason.,...&Zhu, Ziyan.(2020).Monitoring the Morphology of M87* in 2009-2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope.ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,901(1),28.
MLA Wielgus, Maciek,et al."Monitoring the Morphology of M87* in 2009-2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope".ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 901.1(2020):28.
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