YNAO OpenIR  > 丽江天文观测站(南方基地)
Verification of Radiative Transfer Schemes for the EHT
Gold, Roman1,2,3; Broderick, Avery E.3,4,5; Younsi, Ziri2,6; Fromm, Christian M.2; Gammie, Charles F.7; Mo?cibrodzka,Monika8; Pu, Hung-Yi3; Bronzwaer, Thomas8; Davelaar, Jordy8; Dexter, Jason9; Ball, David10; Chan, Chi-kwan10,11; Kawashima, Tomohisa12; Mizuno, Yosuke2; Ripperda, Bart13,14; Akiyama, Kazunori12,15,16,17; Alberdi, Antxon18; Alef, Walter19; Asada, Keiichi20; Azulay, Rebecca19,21,22; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin19; Balokovi?, Mislav17,23; Barrett, John16; Bintley, Dan24; Blackburn, Lindy17,23; Boland, Wilfred25; Bouman, Katherine L.17,23,26; Bower, Geoffrey C.27; Bremer, Michael28; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.8; Brissenden, Roger17,23; Britzen, Silke19; Broguiere, Dominique28; Byun, Do-Young29,30; Carlstrom, John E.31,32,33,34; Chael, Andrew35; Chatterjee, Koushik36; Chatterjee, Shami37; Chen, Ming-Tang27; Chen, Yongjun38,39; Cho, Ilje29,30; Christian, Pierre10,23; Conway, John E.40; Cordes, James M.37; Crew, Geoffrey B.16; Cui, Yuzhu41,42; Laurentis, Mariafelicia De2,43,44; Deane, Roger45,46; Dempsey, Jessica24; Desvignes, Gregory19,47; Doeleman, Sheperd S.17,23; Eatough, Ralph?P.19; Falcke, Heino8; Fish, Vincent L.16; Fomalont, Ed15; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel8; Freeman, Bill48,49; Friberg, Per24; Gómez, José L.18; Galison, Peter17,50,51; García, Roberto28; Gentaz, Olivier28; Georgiev, Boris4,5; Goddi, Ciriaco8,52; Gu, Minfeng38,53; Gurwell, Mark23; Hada, Kazuhiro41,42; Hecht, Michael H.16; Hesper, Ronald54; Ho, Luis C.55,56; Ho, Paul20; Honma, Mareki41,42; Huang, Chih-Wei L.20; Huang, Lei38,53; Hughes, David H.57; Inoue, Makoto20; Issaoun, Sara8; James, David J.17,23; Jannuzi, Buell T.10; Janssen, Michael8; Jeter, Britton4; Jiang, Wu38; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra58; Johnson, Michael D.17,23; Jorstad, Svetlana59,60; Jung, Taehyun29,30; Karami, Mansour3,61; Karuppusamy, Ramesh19; Keating, Garrett K.23; Kettenis, Mark62; Kim, Jae-Young19; Kim, Junhan10,26; Kim, Jongsoo29; Kino, Motoki12,63; Koay, Jun Yi20; Koch, Patrick M.20; Koyama, Shoko20; Kramer, Michael19; Kramer, Carsten28; Krichbaum, Thomas P.19; Kuo, Cheng-Yu64; Lauer, Tod R.65; Lee, Sang-Sung29; Li, Yan-Rong66; Li, Zhiyuan67,68; Lico, Rocco19; Lindqvist, Michael40; Liu, Kuo19; Liuzzo,Elisabetta69; Lo,Wen-Ping20,70; Lobanov,Andrei P.19; Loinard,Laurent71,72; Lonsdale,Colin16; Lu,Ru-Sen19,38,39; MacDonald,Nicholas R.19; Markoff,Sera73; Mao JR(毛基荣)74,75,76; Marrone, Daniel P.10; Marscher, Alan P.59; Martí-Vidal, Iván77; Matsushita,Satoki20; Matthews,Lynn D.16; Medeiros, Lia10,78; Menten, Karl M.19; Mizuno, Izumi24; Moran, James M.17,23; Moriyama, Kotaro41; Müller, Cornelia8,19; Nagai, Hiroshi79,80; Nakamura, Masanori20; Nagar, Neil M.81; Narayan, Ramesh17,23; Narayanan, Gopal82; Natarajan, Iniyan46; Neri, Roberto28; Ni, Chunchong4; Noutsos, Aristeidis19; Okino, Hiroki41,83; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.19; Oyama, Tomoaki41; ?zel, Feryal10; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.17,23; Park, Jongho20; Patel, Nimesh23; Pen, Ue-Li3,84,85,86; Pesce, Dominic W.17,23; Plambeck, Richard87; Piétu, Vincent28; PopStefanija, Aleksandar82; Porth, Oliver2,36; Preciado-López, Jorge A.3; Psaltis, Dimitrios10; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh81; Rao, Ramprasad27; Rawlings, Mark G.24; Raymond, Alexander W.17,23; Rezzolla, Luciano2,88; Roelofs, Freek8; Rogers, Alan16; Ros, Eduardo19; Rose, Mel10; Roshanineshat, Arash10; Rottmann, Helge19; Roy, Alan L.19; Ruszczyk, Chet16; Rygl, Kazi L. J.69; Sánchez, Salvador89; Sánchez-Arguelles, David57,90; Sasada, Mahito41,91; Savolainen, Tuomas19,92,93; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich28; Schloerb, F. Peter82; Shao, Lijing19,56; Shen, Zhiqiang38,39; Small, Des62; Sohn, Bong Won29,30,94; SooHoo, Jason16; Tiede, Paul3,4; Tazaki, Fumie41; Tilanus, Remo P. J.8,52,95; Titus, Michael16; Toma, Kenji96,97; Torne, Pablo19,89; Trent, Tyler10; Traianou, Thalia19; Trippe, Sascha98; Tsuda, Shuichiro99; van Langevelde,Huib Jan62,100; Bemmel, Ilse van62; van Rossum, Daniel R.8; Wagner, Jan19; Wardle, John101; Wex, Norbert19; Weintroub, Jonathan17,23; Wharton, Robert19; Wielgus, Maciek17,23; Wong, George N.102,103; Wu, Qingwen104; Yoon, Doosoo36; Young, Ken23; Young, André8; Yuan, Feng38,53,105; Yuan, Ye-Fei106; Zensus, J. Anton19; Zhao, Guangyao29; Zhao, Shan-Shan38; Zhu, Ziyan51
Source PublicationThe Astrophysical Journal
2020-07-01
Volume897Issue:2Pages:21
DOI10.3847/1538-4357/ab96c6
Contribution Rank第74完成单位
Indexed BySCI
Keywordblack hole physics High energy astrophysics Radiative transfer Relativity General relativity Relativistic disks Very long baseline interferometry Radio astronomy Event horizons
Abstract

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration has recently produced the first resolved images of the central supermassive black hole in the giant elliptical galaxy M87. Here we report on tests of the consistency and accuracy of the general relativistic radiative transfer codes used within the collaboration to model M87* and Sgr A*. We compare and evaluate (1) deflection angles for equatorial null geodesics in a Kerr spacetime; (2) images calculated from a series of simple, parameterized matter distributions in the Kerr metric using simplified emissivities and absorptivities; (3) for a subset of codes, images calculated from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations using different realistic synchrotron emissivities and absorptivities; (4) observables for the 2017 configuration of EHT, including visibility amplitudes and closure phases. The error in total flux is of order 1% when the codes are run with production numerical parameters. The dominant source of discrepancies for small camera distances is the location and detailed setup of the software “camera” that each code uses to produce synthetic images. We find that when numerical parameters are suitably chosen and the camera is sufficiently far away the images converge and that for given transfer coefficients, numerical uncertainties are unlikely to limit parameter estimation for the current generation of EHT observations. The purpose of this paper is to describe a verification and comparison of EHT radiative transfer codes. It is not to verify EHT models more generally.

Funding ProjectAcademy of Finland[274477] ; Academy of Finland[284495] ; Academy of Finland[312496] ; European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action[731016] ; John Templeton Foundation[60477] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[PIA ACT172033] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[BASAL AFB-170002] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[ALMA-conicyt 31140007] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[104497] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[275201] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[279006] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[281692] ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM)[IN112417] ; European Research Council Synergy Grant BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes[610058] ; Generalitat Valenciana[APOSTD/2018/177] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-3561] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-5278] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF 947] ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)[JP17J08829] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[ZDBS-LY-SLH011] ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18KK0090] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18K13594] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18K03656] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18H03721] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18K03709] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18H01245] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[25120007] ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[105-2112-M-001-025-MY3] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[106-2112-M-001-011] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[106-2119-M-001-027] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-001-017] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-001020] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-110-005] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant - Space Telescope Science Institute)[80NSSC17K0649] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Hubble Fellowship grant - Space Telescope Science Institute)[HSTHF2-51431.001-A] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400704] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400702] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0096454] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0352953] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0521233] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0705062] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0905844] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0922984] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1126433] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1140030] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[DGE-1144085] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207704] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207730] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207752] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[MRI-1228509] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[OPP-1248097] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1310896] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1312651] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1337663] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11573051] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11633006] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11650110427] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[10625314] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11721303] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11725312] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11933007] ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program) ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1A2A1033752] ; National Research Foundation of Korea[2015-R1D1A1A01056807] ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1D3A1066561] ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award[639.043.513] ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) Spinoza Prize[SPI 78-409] ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council[2017-00648] ; Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation[17-12-01029] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2016-80889-P] ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa[SEV-2017-0709] ; National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDOE[89233218CNA000001] ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Universita e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA[CUP C52I13000140001] ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program[730562 RadioNet] ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Chandra[TM6-17006X] ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana)[CIDEGENT/2018/021] ; NSF[ACI-1548562] ; NSF[DBI-0735191] ; NSF[DBI1265383] ; NSF[DBI-1743442] ; Compute Ontario ; Calcul Quebec ; Compute Canada ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China[2017YFA0402700] ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) ; MPG (Max-PlanckGesellschaft, Germany) ; IGN (Instituto Geografico Nacional, Spain) ; State of Arizona ; National Science Foundation[PLR-1248097] ; NSF Physics Frontier Center[PHY-1125897] ; Kavli Foundation ; Princeton/Flatiron Postdoctoral Prize Fellowship ; NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute[HST-HF2-51431.001-A] ; Generalitat Valenciana GenT Program[CIDEGENT/2018/021] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt projects)[1171506] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt projects)[3190878] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)[NAS5-26555] ; [AST-1440254] ; [AST-1555365] ; [AST-1715061] ; [AST-1615796] ; [AST-1716327] ; [OISE-1743747] ; [AST-1816420]
Funding OrganizationAcademy of Finland[274477, 284495, 312496] ; European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action[731016] ; John Templeton Foundation[60477] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[PIA ACT172033, BASAL AFB-170002, ALMA-conicyt 31140007] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[104497] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[275201, 279006, 281692] ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM)[IN112417] ; European Research Council Synergy Grant BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes[610058] ; Generalitat Valenciana[APOSTD/2018/177] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-3561] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-5278, GBMF 947] ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)[JP17J08829] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008, ZDBS-LY-SLH011] ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, 25120007] ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119-M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001020, 107-2119-M-110-005] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant - Space Telescope Science Institute)[80NSSC17K0649] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Hubble Fellowship grant - Space Telescope Science Institute)[HSTHF2-51431.001-A] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST-1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896, AST-1312651, AST-1337663] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11933007] ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships-Doctoral Program) ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, 2015-R1D1A1A01056807, NRF-2015H1D3A1066561] ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award[639.043.513] ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) Spinoza Prize[SPI 78-409] ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council[2017-00648] ; Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation[17-12-01029] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P, AYA2016-80889-P] ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa[SEV-2017-0709] ; National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDOE[89233218CNA000001] ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Universita e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA[CUP C52I13000140001] ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program[730562 RadioNet] ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Chandra[TM6-17006X] ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana)[CIDEGENT/2018/021] ; NSF[ACI-1548562, DBI-0735191, DBI1265383, DBI-1743442] ; Compute Ontario ; Calcul Quebec ; Compute Canada ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China[2017YFA0402700] ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) ; MPG (Max-PlanckGesellschaft, Germany) ; IGN (Instituto Geografico Nacional, Spain) ; State of Arizona ; National Science Foundation[PLR-1248097] ; NSF Physics Frontier Center[PHY-1125897] ; Kavli Foundation ; Princeton/Flatiron Postdoctoral Prize Fellowship ; NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute[HST-HF2-51431.001-A] ; Generalitat Valenciana GenT Program[CIDEGENT/2018/021] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt projects)[1171506, 3190878] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)[NAS5-26555] ; [AST-1440254] ; [AST-1555365] ; [AST-1715061] ; [AST-1615796] ; [AST-1716327] ; [OISE-1743747] ; [AST-1816420]
Language英语
Subject Area天文学 ; 天体物理学 ; 高能天体物理学 ; 星系与宇宙学
MOST Discipline Catalogue理学 ; 理学::天文学
SubtypeArticle
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
Publication PlaceTEMPLE CIRCUS, TEMPLE WAY, BRISTOL BS1 6BE, ENGLAND
ISSN0004-637X
URL查看原文
WOS IDWOS:000552696800001
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS KeywordCOVARIANT MAGNETOIONIC THEORY ; SGR A-ASTERISK ; ACCRETION ; EMISSION ; SIMULATIONS ; ELECTRONS ; LINES ; JETS ; CODE
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ynao.ac.cn/handle/114a53/23578
Collection丽江天文观测站(南方基地)
中国科学院天体结构与演化重点实验室
Corresponding AuthorGold, Roman
Affiliation1.CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark
2.Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universit?t Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Stra?e 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
3.Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5, Canada
4.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada
5.Waterloo Centre for Astrophysics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
6.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT, UK
7.Department of Astronomy; Department of Physics; University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
8.Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
9.JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
10.Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
11.Data Science Institute, University of Arizona, 1230 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
12.National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
13.Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA
14.Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
15.National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
16.Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory, 99 Millstone Road, Westford, MA 01886, USA
17.Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, 20 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
18.Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía—CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada, Spain
19.Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany; rlico@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de
20.Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C.
21.Departament d’Astronomia i Astrofísica, Universitat de València, C. Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain
22.Observatori Astronòmic, Universitat de València, C. Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna, València, Spain
23.Center for Astrophysics ∣ Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
24.East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A’ohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720, USA
25.Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA), P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands
26.California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
27.Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 645 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
28.Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères, France
29.Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daedeok-daero 776, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea
30.University of Science and Technology, Gajeong-ro 217, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea
31.Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
32.Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
33.Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
34.Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
35.Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
36.Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
37.Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
38.Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030, People’s Republic of China
39.Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, People’s Republic of China
40.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala, Sweden
41.Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-12 Hoshigaoka, Mizusawa, Oshu, Iwate 023-0861, Japan
42.Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
43.Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Pancini,” Universitá di Napoli “Federico II,” Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli, Italy
44.INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli, Italy
45.Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Hatfield, Pretoria 0083, South Africa
46.Centre for Radio Astronomy Techniques and Technologies, Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa
47.LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France
48.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 32-D476, 77 Massachussetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
49.Google Research, 355 Main St., Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
50.Department of History of Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
51.Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
52.Leiden Observatory-Allegro, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
53.Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030, People’s Republic of China
54.NOVA Sub-mm Instrumentation Group, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands
55.Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People’s Republic of China
56.Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People’s Republic of China
57.Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, óptica y Electrónica. Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000. Puebla Pue., México
58.Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany
59.Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215, USA
60.Astronomical Institute, St.Petersburg University, Universitetskij pr., 28, Petrodvorets,198504 St.Petersburg, Russia
61.University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada
62.Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC (JIVE), Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
63.Kogakuin University of Technology & Engineering, Academic Support Center, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015, Japan
64.Physics Department, National Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 70, Lien-Hai Rd, Kaosiung City 80424, Taiwan, R.O.C
65.National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
66.Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
67.School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, People’s Republic of China
68.Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, People’s Republic of China
69.Italian ALMA Regional Centre, INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy
70.Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sect. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C
71.Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089, México
72.Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx 04510, México
73.Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy & GRAPPA, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
74.Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China
75.Center for Astronomical Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012, People’s Republic of China
76.Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, People’s Republic of China
77.Dpt. Astronomia i Astrofísica & Observatori Astronòmic (Universitat de València), Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain
78.Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
79.National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
80.Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
81.Astronomy Department, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile
82.Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 01003, Amherst, MA, USA
83.Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
84.Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada
85.Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada
86.Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 180 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G 1Z8, Canada
87.Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
88.School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
89.Instituto de Radioastronomía Milimétrica, IRAM, Avenida Divina Pastora 7, Local 20, E-18012, Granada, Spain
90.Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av. Insurgentes Sur 1582, 03940, Ciudad de México, México
91.Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
92.Aalto University Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, PL 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
93.Aalto University Mets?hovi Radio Observatory, Mets?hovintie 114, FI-02540 Kylm?l?, Finland
94.Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, 03722 Seoul, Republic of Korea
95.Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), Postbus 93138, 2509 AC Den Haag , The Netherlands
96.Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
97.Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
98.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea
99.Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hoshigaoka 2-12, Mizusawa-ku, Oshu-shi, Iwate 023-0861, Japan
100.Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 2300, 9513 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
101.Physics Department, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
102.Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green St, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
103.CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
104.School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, People’s Republic of China
105.School of Astronomy and Space Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, People’s Republic of China
106.Astronomy Department, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, People’s Republic of China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Gold, Roman,Broderick, Avery E.,Younsi, Ziri,et al. Verification of Radiative Transfer Schemes for the EHT[J]. The Astrophysical Journal,2020,897(2):21.
APA Gold, Roman.,Broderick, Avery E..,Younsi, Ziri.,Fromm, Christian M..,Gammie, Charles F..,...&Zhu, Ziyan.(2020).Verification of Radiative Transfer Schemes for the EHT.The Astrophysical Journal,897(2),21.
MLA Gold, Roman,et al."Verification of Radiative Transfer Schemes for the EHT".The Astrophysical Journal 897.2(2020):21.
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