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Resolved Neutral Carbon Emission in Nearby Galaxies: [C I] Lines as Total Molecular Gas Tracers
Jiao, Qian1; Zhao YH(赵应和)2,3; Lu, Nanyao4,5; Gao, Yu1; Salak, Dragan6; Zhu, Ming5; Zhang, Zhi-Yu7,8; Jiang, Xue-Jian1; Tan, Qinghua1
Source PublicationASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL
2019-08-01
Volume880Issue:2Pages:11
DOI10.3847/1538-4357/ab29ed
Contribution Rank第2完成单位
Indexed BySCI
Keywordgalaxies: spiral galaxies: starburst ISM: abundances ISM: atoms ISM: molecules
Abstract

We present maps of atomic carbon [C I](P-3(1) -> P-3(0)) and [C I](P-3(2) -> P-3(1)) emission (hereafter [C I] (1-0) and [C I] (2-1), respectively) at a linear resolution similar to 1 kpc scale for a sample of one H II, six LINER, three Seyfert, and five starburst galaxies observed with the Herschel Space Observatory. We compare spatial distributions of two [C I] lines with that of CO J = 1 -> 0 (hereafter CO (1-0)) emission, and find that both [C I] lines distribute similarly to CO (1-0) emission in most galaxies. We present luminosity ratio maps of L[C I](1-0)'/LCO(1-0)', L[C I](2-1)'/LCO(1-0)', L[C I](2-1)'/L[C I](1-0)' (hereafter R-[C I] and 70-to-160 mu m far-infrared color of f(70)/f(160). L[C I](2-1)'/LCO(1-0)', R-[C I] and f(70)/f(160) are centrally peaked in starbursts; whereas they remain relatively constant in LINERs, indicating that star-forming activity can enhance carbon emission, especially for [C I] (2-1). We explore the correlations between the luminosities of CO (1-0) and [C I] lines, and find that LCO(1-0)' correlates tightly and almost linearly with both L[C I](1-0)' and L[C I](2-1)', suggesting that [C I] lines, similar to CO (1-0), can trace total molecular gas in H II, LINER, Seyfert, and starburst galaxies on kpc scales. We investigate the dependence of L[C I](1-0)'/LCO(1-0)', L[C I](2-1)'/LCO(1-0)' and [C I] excitation temperature, T-ex, on dust temperature, T-dust, and find noncorrelation and a weak and modest correlation, respectively. The ratio of L[C I](1-0)'/LCO(1-0)' stays a smooth distribution in most galaxies, indicating that the conversion factor of [C I] (1-0) luminosity to H-2 mass (X[CI](1-0)) changes with CO (1-0) conversion factor (alpha(CO)) proportionally. Under optically thin and local thermodynamical equilibrium assumptions, we derive a galaxy-wide average carbon excitation temperature of T-ex similar to 19.7 +/- 0.5 K, and an average neutral carbon abundance of X [CI]/X [H-2] similar to 2.5 +/- 1.0 x 10(-5) in our resolved sample, which is comparable to the usually adopted value of 3 x 10(-5), but similar to 3 times lower than the carbon abundance in local (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies. We conclude that the carbon abundance varies in different galaxy types.

Funding ProjectNational Key Basic Research and Development Program of China[2017YFA0402704] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11673057] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11861131007] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11420101002] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[U1531246] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11673028] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11603075] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11803090] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences[QYZDJ-SSW-SLH008] ; Youth 1000-talent Program of Yunnan Province
Funding OrganizationNational Key Basic Research and Development Program of China[2017YFA0402704] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)[11673057, 11861131007, 11420101002, U1531246, 11673028, 11603075, 11803090] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences[QYZDJ-SSW-SLH008] ; Youth 1000-talent Program of Yunnan Province
Language英语
Subject Area天文学 ; 星系与宇宙学 ; 恒星与银河系
MOST Discipline Catalogue理学 ; 理学::天文学
SubtypeArticle
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
Publication PlaceTEMPLE CIRCUS, TEMPLE WAY, BRISTOL BS1 6BE, ENGLAND
ISSN0004-637X
URL查看原文
WOS IDWOS:000478735500007
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS KeywordATOMIC CARBON ; PHYSICAL CONDITIONS ; PHOTODISSOCIATION REGIONS ; INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM ; INFRARED GALAXIES ; SPIRAL GALAXIES ; STAR-FORMATION ; STARBURST ; M82 ; CLOUDS
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ynao.ac.cn/handle/114a53/20843
Collection丽江天文观测站(南方基地)
中国科学院天体结构与演化重点实验室
Corresponding AuthorJiao, Qian
Affiliation1.Purple Mountain Observatory & Key Lab of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Nanjing 210008, People's Republic of China
2.Yunnan Observatories & Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, CAS, Kunming 650011, People's Republic of China
3.Center for Astronomical Mega-Science, CAS, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012, People's Republic of China
4.China-Chile Joint Center for Astronomy (CCJCA), Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
5.National Astronomical Observatories & Key Lab of Radio Astronomy, CAS, Beijing 100012, People's Republic of China
6.School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337, Japan
7.Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK
8.ESO, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Munich, Germany
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Jiao, Qian,Zhao YH,Lu, Nanyao,et al. Resolved Neutral Carbon Emission in Nearby Galaxies: [C I] Lines as Total Molecular Gas Tracers[J]. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,2019,880(2):11.
APA Jiao, Qian.,Zhao YH.,Lu, Nanyao.,Gao, Yu.,Salak, Dragan.,...&Tan, Qinghua.(2019).Resolved Neutral Carbon Emission in Nearby Galaxies: [C I] Lines as Total Molecular Gas Tracers.ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,880(2),11.
MLA Jiao, Qian,et al."Resolved Neutral Carbon Emission in Nearby Galaxies: [C I] Lines as Total Molecular Gas Tracers".ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 880.2(2019):11.
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