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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation
Akiyama,Kazunori1,2,3,4; Alberdi,Antxon5; Alef,Walter6; Asada,Keiichi7; Azulay,Rebecca6,8,9; Baczko,Anne-Kathrin6; Ball,David10; Balokovi?,Mislav4,11; Barrett,John2; Bintley,Dan12; Blackburn,Lindy4,11; Boland,Wilfred13; Bouman,Katherine L.4,11,14; Bower,Geoffrey C.15; Bremer,Michael16; Brinkerink,Christiaan D.17; Brissenden,Roger4,11; Britzen,Silke6; Broderick,Avery E.18,19,20; Broguiere,Dominique16; Bronzwaer,Thomas17; Byun,Do-Young21,22; Carlstrom,John E.23,24,25,26; Chael,Andrew4,11; Chan,Chi-kwan10,27; Chatterjee,Shami28; Chatterjee,Koushik29; Chen,Ming-Tang15; Chen,Yongjun30,31; Cho,Ilje21,22; Christian,Pierre10,11; Conway,John E.32; Cordes,James M.28; Crew,Geoffrey B.2; Cui,Yuzhu33,34; Davelaar,Jordy17; De Laurentis,Mariafelicia35,36,37; Deane,Roger38,39; Dempsey,Jessica12; Desvignes,Gregory6; Dexter,Jason40; Doeleman,Sheperd S.4,11; Eatough,Ralph P.6; Falcke,Heino17; Fish,Vincent L.2; Fomalont,Ed1; Fraga-Encinas,Raquel17; Friberg,Per12; Fromm,Christian M.36; Gómez,José L.5; Galison,Peter4,41,42; Gammie,Charles F.43,44; García,Roberto16; Gentaz,Olivier16; Georgiev,Boris19,20; Goddi,Ciriaco17,45; Gold,Roman36; Gu,Minfeng30,46; Gurwell,Mark11; Hada,Kazuhiro33,34; Hecht,Michael H.2; Hesper,Ronald47; Ho,Luis C.48,49; Ho,Paul7; Honma,Mareki33,34; Huang,Chih-Wei L.7; Huang,Lei30,46; Hughes,David H.50; Ikeda,Shiro3,51,52,53; Inoue,Makoto7; Issaoun,Sara17; James,David J.4,11; Jannuzi,Buell T.10; Janssen,Michael17; Jeter,Britton19,20; Jiang,Wu30; Johnson,Michael D.4,11; Jorstad,Svetlana54,55; Jung,Taehyun21,22; Karami,Mansour18,19; Karuppusamy,Ramesh6; Kawashima,Tomohisa3; Keating,Garrett K.11; Kettenis,Mark56; Kim,Jae-Young6; Kim,Junhan10; Kim,Jongsoo21; Kino,Motoki3,57; Koay,Jun Yi7; Koch,Patrick M.7; Koyama,Shoko7; Kramer,Michael6; Kramer,Carsten16; Krichbaum,Thomas P.6; Kuo,Cheng-Yu58; Lauer,Tod R.59; Lee,Sang-Sung21; Li,Yan-Rong60; Li,Zhiyuan61,62; Lindqvist,Michael32; Liu,Kuo6; Liuzzo,Elisabetta63; Lo,Wen-Ping7,64; Lobanov,Andrei P.6; Loinard,Laurent65,66; Lonsdale,Colin2; Lu,Ru-Sen6,30; MacDonald,Nicholas R.6; Mao JR(毛基荣)67,68,69; Markoff,Sera29,70; Marrone,Daniel P.10; Marscher,Alan P.54; Martí-Vidal,Iván32,71; Matsushita,Satoki7; Matthews,Lynn D.2; Medeiros,Lia10,72; Menten,Karl M.6; Mizuno,Yosuke36; Mizuno,Izumi12; Moran,James M.4,11; Moriyama,Kotaro2,33; Moscibrodzka,Monika17; Müller,Cornelia6,17; Nagai,Hiroshi3,34; Nagar,Neil M.73; Nakamura,Masanori7; Narayan,Ramesh4,11; Narayanan,Gopal74; Natarajan,Iniyan39; Neri,Roberto16; Ni,Chunchong19,20; Noutsos,Aristeidis6; Okino,Hiroki33,75; Olivares,Héctor36; Ortiz-León,Gisela N.6; Oyama,Tomoaki33; ?zel,Feryal10; Palumbo,Daniel C. M.4,11; Patel,Nimesh11; Pen,Ue-Li18,76,77,78; Pesce,Dominic W.4,11; Piétu,Vincent16; Plambeck,Richard79; PopStefanija,Aleksandar74; Porth,Oliver29,36; Prather,Ben43; Preciado-López,Jorge A.18; Psaltis,Dimitrios10; Pu,Hung-Yi18; Ramakrishnan,Venkatessh73; Rao,Ramprasad15; Rawlings,Mark G.12; Raymond,Alexander W.4,11; Rezzolla,Luciano36; Ripperda,Bart36; Roelofs,Freek17; Rogers,Alan2; Ros,Eduardo6; Rose,Mel10; Roshanineshat,Arash10; Rottmann,Helge6; Roy,Alan L.6; Ruszczyk,Chet2; Ryan,Benjamin R.80,81; Rygl,Kazi L. J.63; Sánchez,Salvador82; Sánchez-Arguelles,David50,83; Sasada,Mahito33,84; Savolainen,Tuomas6,85,86; Schloerb,F. Peter74; Schuster,Karl-Friedrich16; Shao,Lijing6,49; Shen,Zhiqiang30,31; Small,Des56; Sohn,Bong Won21,22,87; SooHoo,Jason2; Tazaki,Fumie33; Tiede,Paul19,20; Tilanus,Remo P. J.17,45,88; Titus,Michael2; Toma,Kenji89,90; Torne,Pablo6,82; Trent,Tyler10; Trippe,Sascha91; Tsuda,Shuichiro33; van Bemmel,Ilse56; van Langevelde,Huib Jan56,92; van Rossum,Daniel R.17; Wagner,Jan6; Wardle,John93; Weintroub,Jonathan4,11; Wex,Norbert6; Wharton,Robert6; Wielgus,Maciek4,11; Wong,George N.43; Wu,Qingwen94; Young,André17; Young,Ken11; Younsi,Ziri36,95; Yuan,Feng30,46,96; Yuan,Ye-Fei97; Zensus,J. Anton6; Zhao,Guangyao21; Zhao,Shan-Shan17,61; Zhu,Ziyan42; Algaba,Juan-Carlos7,98; Allardi,Alexander99; Amestica,Rodrigo100; Bach,Uwe6; Beaudoin,Christopher2; Benson,Bradford A.23,24,26; Berthold,Ryan12; Blanchard,Jay M.56,73; Blundell,Ray11; Bustamente,Sandra101; Cappallo,Roger2; Castillo-Domínguez,Edgar101,102; Chang,Chih-Cheng7,103; Chang,Shu-Hao7; Chang,Song-Chu103; Chen,Chung-Chen7; Chilson,Ryan15; Chuter,Tim C.12; Rosado,Rodrigo Córdova4,11; Coulson,Iain M.12; Crawford,Thomas M.24; Crowley,Joseph104; David,John82; Derome,Mark2; Dexter,Matthew105; Dornbusch,Sven6; Dudevoir,Kevin A.135; Dzib,Sergio A.6; Eckert,Chris2; Erickson,Neal R.74; Everett,Wendeline B.106; Faber,Aaron107; Farah,Joseph R.4,11,108; Fath,Vernon74; Folkers,Thomas W.10; Forbes,David C.10; Freund,Robert10; Gómez-Ruiz,Arturo I.101,102; Gale,David M.101; Gao,Feng30,40; Geertsema,Gertie109; Graham,David A.6; Greer,Christopher H.10; Grosslein,Ronald74; Gueth,Frédéric16; Halverson,Nils W.110; Han,Chih-Chiang7; Han,Kuo-Chang103; Hao,Jinchi103; Hasegawa,Yutaka111; Henning,Jason W.23,112; Hernández-Gómez,Antonio65,113; Herrero-Illana,Rubén114; Heyminck,Stefan6; Hirota,Akihiko3,115; Hoge,James12; Huang,Yau-De7; Impellizzeri,C. M. Violette115,116; Jiang,Homin7; Kamble,Atish4,11; Keisler,Ryan25; Kimura,Kimihiro111; Kono,Yusuke3; Kubo,Derek117; Kuroda,John12; Lacasse,Richard100; Laing,Robert A.118; Leitch,Erik M.23; Li,Chao-Te7; Lin,Lupin C.-C.7,119; Liu,Ching-Tang103; Liu,Kuan-Yu7; Lu,Li-Ming103; Marson,Ralph G.120; Martin-Cocher,Pierre L.7; Massingill,Kyle D.10; Matulonis,Callie12; McColl,Martin P.10; McWhirter,Stephen R.2; Messias,Hugo114,115; Meyer-Zhao,Zheng7,121; Michalik,Daniel24,122; Monta?a,Alfredo101,102; Montgomerie,William12; Mora-Klein,Matias100; Muders,Dirk6; Nadolski,Andrew44; Navarro,Santiago82; Nguyen,Chi H.10,123; Nishioka,Hiroaki7; Norton,Timothy11; Nystrom,George15; Ogawa,Hideo111; Oshiro,Peter15; Oyama,Tomoaki124; Padin,Stephen23,24; Parsons,Harriet12; Paine,Scott N.11; Pe?alver,Juan82; Phillips,Neil M.114,115; Poirier,Michael2; Pradel,Nicolas7; Primiani,Rurik A.125; Raffin,Philippe A.15; Rahlin,Alexandra S.23,126; Reiland,George10; Risacher,Christopher16; Ruiz,Ignacio82; Sáez-Madaín,Alejandro F.100,115; Sassella,Remi16; Schellart,Pim17,127; Shaw,Paul7; Silva,Kevin M.12; Shiokawa,Hotaka11; Smith,David R.128,129; Snow,William15; Souccar,Kamal74; Sousa,Don2; Sridharan,T. K.11; Srinivasan,Ranjani15; Stahm,William12; Stark,Antony A.11; Story,Kyle130; Timmer,Sjoerd T.17; Vertatschitsch,Laura11,125; Walther,Craig12; Wei,Ta-Shun7; Whitehorn,Nathan131; Whitney,Alan R.2; Woody,David P.132; Wouterloot,Jan G. A.12; Wright,Melvin133; Yamaguchi,Paul11; Yu,Chen-Yu7; Zeballos,Milagros101,134; Ziurys,Lucy10
Source PublicationASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS
2019-04-10
Volume875Issue:1Pages:28
DOI10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c96
Contribution Rank第67完成单位
Indexed BySCI
Keywordblack hole physics galaxies: individual (M87) Galaxy: center gravitational lensing: strong instrumentation: interferometers techniques: high angular resolution
Abstract

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array that comprises millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the diameter of the Earth. At a nominal operating wavelength of similar to 1.3 mm, EHT angular resolution (lambda/D) is similar to 25 mu as, which is sufficient to resolve nearby supermassive black hole candidates on spatial and temporal scales that correspond to their event horizons. With this capability, the EHT scientific goals are to probe general relativistic effects in the strong-field regime and to study accretion and relativistic jet formation near the black hole boundary. In this Letter we describe the system design of the EHT, detail the technology and instrumentation that enable observations, and provide measures of its performance. Meeting the EHT science objectives has required several key developments that have facilitated the robust extension of the VLBI technique to EHT observing wavelengths and the production of instrumentation that can be deployed on a heterogeneous array of existing telescopes and facilities. To meet sensitivity requirements, high-bandwidth digital systems were developed that process data at rates of 64. gigabit s(-1), exceeding those of currently operating cm-wavelength VLBI arrays by more than an order of magnitude. Associated improvements include the development of phasing systems at array facilities, new receiver installation at several sites, and the deployment of hydrogen maser frequency standards to ensure coherent data capture across the array. These efforts led to the coordination and execution of the first Global EHT observations in 2017 April, and to event-horizon-scale imaging of the supermassive black hole candidate in M87.

Funding ProjectAcademy of Finland[274477] ; Academy of Finland[284495] ; Academy of Finland[312496] ; European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action[731016] ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University through John Templeton Foundation[60477] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[PIA ACT172033] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[Fondecyt 1171506] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[BASAL AFB-170002] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[ALMA-conicyt 31140007] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[104497] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[275201] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[279006] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[281692] ; Direccion General de Asuntos de l Personal Academico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM)[IN112417] ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes"[610058] ; Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant[APOSTD/2018/177] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF 947] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-3561] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-5278] ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)[JP17J08829] ; JSPS Overseas Research Fellowships ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008] ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18KK0090] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18K13594] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18K03656] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18H03721] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18K03709] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18H01245] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[25120007] ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[105-2112-M-001-025-MY3] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[106-2112-M-001-011] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[106-2119-M-001-027] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-001-017] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-001-020] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-110-005] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant)[80NSSC17K0649] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400704] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400702] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0096454] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0352953] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0521233] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0705062] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0905844] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0922984] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1126433] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1140030] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[DGE-1144085] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207704] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207730] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207752] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[MRI-1228509] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[OPP-1248097] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1310896] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11573051] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11633006] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11650110427] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[10625314] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11721303] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11725312] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11873028] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11873073] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[U1531245] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11473010] ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Research Foundation of Korea[2015-R1D1A1A01056807] ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1A2A1033752] ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1D3A1066561] ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award[639.043.513] ; Spinoza Prize[SPI 78-409] ; Swedish Research Council[2017-00648] ; Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development, Job Creation and Trade ; Russian Science Foundation[17-12-01029] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2016-80889-P] ; US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory[89233218CNA000001] ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Universita e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA[CUP C52I13000140001] ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme[730562 RadioNet] ; ALMA North America Development Fund Chandra[TM6-17006X] ; NSF[ACI-1548562] ; NSF[DBI-0735191] ; NSF[DBI-1265383] ; NSF[DBI-1743442] ; MOST (Taiwan)[99-2119-M-001-002-MY4] ; MOST (Taiwan)[103-2119-M-001-010-MY2] ; MOST (Taiwan)[106-2119-M-001-013] ; MOST (Taiwan)[106-2923-M-001-005] ; MOST (Taiwan)[107-2923-M-001-002] ; Smithsonian Institution ; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) ; MPG(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany) ; Academia Sinica ; National Key R&D Program of China[2017YFA0402700] ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; NSF ; NSF Physics Frontier Center award[PHY-0114422] ; Kavli Foundation ; GBMF[GBMF-947] ; National Science Foundation[PLR-1248097] ; NSF Physics Frontier Center grant[PHY-1125897] ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award[SEV-2017-0709] ; Academia Sinica (Taiwan) ; IGN (Instituto Geografico, Nacional, Spain) ; Compute Ontario ; Calcul Quebec ; Compute Canada ; CyVerse ; [AST-1312651] ; [AST-1337663] ; [AST-1440254] ; [AST-1555365] ; [AST-1715061] ; [AST-1615796] ; [AST-1614868] ; [AST-1716327] ; [OISE-1743747] ; [AST-1816420]
Funding OrganizationAcademy of Finland[274477, 284495, 312496] ; European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action[731016] ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University through John Templeton Foundation[60477] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[PIA ACT172033, Fondecyt 1171506, BASAL AFB-170002, ALMA-conicyt 31140007] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[104497, 275201, 279006, 281692] ; Direccion General de Asuntos de l Personal Academico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM)[IN112417] ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes"[610058] ; Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant[APOSTD/2018/177] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF 947] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-3561] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-5278] ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)[JP17J08829] ; JSPS Overseas Research Fellowships ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008] ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, 18K03709, 25120007] ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119-M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, 107-2119-M-110-005] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant)[80NSSC17K0649] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST-1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11873028, 11873073, U1531245, 11473010] ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Research Foundation of Korea[2015-R1D1A1A01056807, NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, NRF-2015H1D3A1066561] ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award[639.043.513] ; Spinoza Prize[SPI 78-409] ; Swedish Research Council[2017-00648] ; Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development, Job Creation and Trade ; Russian Science Foundation[17-12-01029] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P, AYA2016-80889-P] ; US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory[89233218CNA000001] ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Universita e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA[CUP C52I13000140001] ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme[730562 RadioNet] ; ALMA North America Development Fund Chandra[TM6-17006X] ; NSF[ACI-1548562, DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, DBI-1743442] ; MOST (Taiwan)[99-2119-M-001-002-MY4, 103-2119-M-001-010-MY2, 106-2119-M-001-013, 106-2923-M-001-005, 107-2923-M-001-002] ; Smithsonian Institution ; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) ; MPG(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany) ; Academia Sinica ; National Key R&D Program of China[2017YFA0402700] ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; NSF ; NSF Physics Frontier Center award[PHY-0114422] ; Kavli Foundation ; GBMF[GBMF-947] ; National Science Foundation[PLR-1248097] ; NSF Physics Frontier Center grant[PHY-1125897] ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award[SEV-2017-0709] ; Academia Sinica (Taiwan) ; IGN (Instituto Geografico, Nacional, Spain) ; Compute Ontario ; Calcul Quebec ; Compute Canada ; CyVerse ; [AST-1312651] ; [AST-1337663] ; [AST-1440254] ; [AST-1555365] ; [AST-1715061] ; [AST-1615796] ; [AST-1614868] ; [AST-1716327] ; [OISE-1743747] ; [AST-1816420]
Language英语
Subject Area天文学 ; 天体物理学 ; 高能天体物理学 ; 实测天体物理学 ; 星系与宇宙学 ; 星系天文学 ; 天文学其他学科
MOST Discipline Catalogue理学 ; 理学::天文学
SubtypeArticle
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
Publication PlaceTEMPLE CIRCUS, TEMPLE WAY, BRISTOL BS1 6BE, ENGLAND
ISSN2041-8205
URL查看原文
WOS IDWOS:000464210800002
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS KeywordSGR-A-ASTERISK ; SUPERMASSIVE BLACK-HOLE ; MAGNETIC-FIELD STRUCTURE ; GHZ VLBI OBSERVATIONS ; COHERENCE LIMITS ; INTRINSIC SIZE ; PICO-VELETA ; RADIO ; ACCRETION ; PARAMETERS
Citation statistics
Cited Times:22[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ynao.ac.cn/handle/114a53/19715
Collection丽江天文观测站(南方基地)
中国科学院天体结构与演化重点实验室
Corresponding AuthorAkiyama,Kazunori
Affiliation1.National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
2.Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory, 99 Millstone Road, Westford, MA 01886, USA
3.National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
4.Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, 20 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
5.Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada, Spain
6.Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
7.Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C.
8.Departament d’Astronomia i Astrofísica, Universitat de València, C. Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain
9.Observatori Astronòmic, Universitat de València, C. Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna, València, Spain
10.Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
11.Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
12.East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
13.Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA), PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
14.California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
15.Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 645 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
16.Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères, France
17.Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
18.Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5, Canada
19.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada
20.Waterloo Centre for Astrophysics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 Canada
21.Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daedeok-daero 776, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea
22.University of Science and Technology, Gajeong-ro 217, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea
23.Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
24.Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
25.Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
26.Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
27.Data Science Institute, University of Arizona, 1230 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
28.Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
29.Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
30.Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030, People’s Republic of China
31.Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, People’s Republic of China
32.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala, Sweden
33.Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-12 Hoshigaoka, Mizusawa, Oshu, Iwate 023-0861, Japan
34.Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
35.Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Pancini”, Universitá di Napoli “Federico II”, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli, Italy
36.Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universit?t Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Stra?e 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
37.INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli, Italy
38.Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Hatfield, Pretoria 0083, South Africa
39.Centre for Radio Astronomy Techniques and Technologies, Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa
40.Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany
41.Department of History of Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
42.Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
43.Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green St, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
44.Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
45.Leiden Observatory—Allegro, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
46.Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030, People’s Republic of China
47.NOVA Sub-mm Instrumentation Group, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands
48.Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People’s Republic of China
49.Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People’s Republic of China
50.Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, óptica y Electrónica. Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000. Puebla Pue., México
51.The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo, 190-8562, Japan
52.Department of Statistical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8562, Japan
53.Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583, Japan
54.Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215, USA
55.Astronomical Institute, St. Petersburg University, Universitetskij pr., 28, Petrodvorets,198504 St.Petersburg, Russia
56.Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC (JIVE), Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
57.Kogakuin University of Technology & Engineering, Academic Support Center, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015, Japan
58.Physics Department, National Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 70, Lien-Hai Rd, Kaosiung City 80424, Taiwan, R.O.C
59.National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
60.Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
61.School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, People’s Republic of China
62.Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, People’s Republic of China
63.Italian ALMA Regional Centre, INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy
64.Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sect.4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C
65.Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089, México
66.Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx 04510, México
67.Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China
68.Center for Astronomical Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012, People’s Republic of China
69.Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, People’s Republic of China
70.Gravitation Astroparticle Physics Amsterdam (GRAPPA) Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
71.Centro Astronómico de Yebes (IGN), Apartado 148, E-19180 Yebes, Spain
72.Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
73.Astronomy Department, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile
74.Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 01003, Amherst, MA, USA
75.Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
76.Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada
77.Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada
78.Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 180 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G 1Z8, Canada
79.Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
80.CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
81.Center for Theoretical Astrophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545, USA
82.Instituto de Radioastronomía Milimétrica, IRAM, Avenida Divina Pastora 7, Local 20, E-18012, Granada, Spain
83.Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av. Insurgentes Sur 1582, 03940, Ciudad de México, México
84.Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
85.Aalto University Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, PL 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
86.Aalto University Mets?hovi Radio Observatory, Mets?hovintie 114, FI-02540 Kylm?l?, Finland
87.Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, 03722 Seoul, Republic of Korea
88.Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), Postbus 93138, 2509 AC Den Haag, The Netherlands
89.Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
90.Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
91.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea
92.Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 2300, 9513 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
93.Physics Department, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
94.School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, People’s Republic of China
95.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT, UK
96.School of Astronomy and Space Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, People’s Republic of China
97.Astronomy Department, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, People’s Republic of China
98.Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
99.University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
100.National Radio Astronomy Observatory, NRAO Technology Center, 1180 Boxwood Estate Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
101.Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, óptica y Electrónica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla, C.P. 72840, Mexico
102.Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av. Insurgentes Sur 1582, Col. Crédito Constructor, CDMX, C.P. 03940, Mexico
103.National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, No.566, Ln. 134, Longyuan Rd., Longtan Dist., Taoyuan City 325, Taiwan, R.O.C.
104.MIT Haystack Observatory, 99 Millstone Road, Westford, MA 01886, USA
105.Dept. of Astronomy, Univ. of California Berkeley, 501 Campbell, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
106.CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
107.Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada
108.University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 William T, Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA 02125, USA
109.Research and Development Weather and Climate Models, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, Utrechtseweg 297, 3731 GA, De Bilt, The Netherlands
110.Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
111.Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuencyou Sakai Osaka, Sakai 599-8531, Kinki, Japan
112.High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA
113.IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, CNES, Toulouse, France
114.European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago de Chile, Chile
115.Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago de Chile, Chile
116.National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
117.ASIAA Hilo Office, 645 N. A‘ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
118.Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 9DL, UK
119.Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, 44919, Republic of Korea
120.National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801, USA
121.ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
122.Science Support Office, Directorate of Science, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands
123.Center for Detectors, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 1 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623, USA
124.Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ohshu, Iwate 023-0861, Japan
125.Systems & Technology Research, 600 West Cummings Park, Woburn, MA 01801, USA
126.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia IL 60510, USA
127.Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
128.MERLAB, 357 S. Candler St., Decatur, GA 30030, USA
129.GWW School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
130.Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
131.Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
132.Owens Valley Radio Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Big Pine, CA 93513, USA
133.Dept. of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, Univ. of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
134.Universidad de las Américas Puebla, Sta. Catarina Mártir S/N, San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, C.P. 72810, Mexico
135.Deceased.
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Akiyama,Kazunori,Alberdi,Antxon,Alef,Walter,et al. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation[J]. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS,2019,875(1):28.
APA Akiyama,Kazunori.,Alberdi,Antxon.,Alef,Walter.,Asada,Keiichi.,Azulay,Rebecca.,...&Ziurys,Lucy.(2019).First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation.ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS,875(1),28.
MLA Akiyama,Kazunori,et al."First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation".ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 875.1(2019):28.
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