YNAO OpenIR  > 丽江天文观测站(南方基地)
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration
Akiyama,Kazunori1,2,3,4; Alberdi,Antxon5; Alef,Walter6; Asada,Keiichi7; Azulay,Rebecca6,8,9; Baczko,Anne-Kathrin6; Ball,David10; Balokovi?,Mislav4,11; Barrett,John2; Bintley,Dan12; Blackburn,Lindy4,11; Boland,Wilfred13; Bouman,Katherine L.4,11,14; Bower,Geoffrey C.15; Bremer,Michael16; Brinkerink,Christiaan D.17; Brissenden,Roger4,11; Britzen,Silke6; Broderick,Avery E.18,19,20; Broguiere,Dominique16; Bronzwaer,Thomas17; Byun,Do-Young21,22; Carlstrom,John E.23,24,25,26; Chael,Andrew4,11; Chan,Chi-kwan10,27; Chatterjee,Shami28; Chatterjee,Koushik29; Chen,Ming-Tang15; Chen,Yongjun30,31; Cho,Ilje21,22; Christian,Pierre10,11; Conway,John E.32; Cordes,James M.28; Crew,Geoffrey B.2; Cui,Yuzhu33,34; Davelaar,Jordy17; De Laurentis,Mariafelicia35,36,37; Deane,Roger38,39; Dempsey,Jessica12; Desvignes,Gregory6; Dexter,Jason40; Doeleman,Sheperd S.4,11; Eatough,Ralph P.6; Falcke,Heino17; Fish,Vincent L.2; Fomalont,Ed1; Fraga-Encinas,Raquel17; Friberg,Per12; Fromm,Christian M.36; Gómez,José L.5; Galison,Peter4,41,42; Gammie,Charles F.43,44; García,Roberto16; Gentaz,Olivier16; Georgiev,Boris19; Goddi,Ciriaco17,45; Gold,Roman36; Gu,Minfeng30,46; Gurwell,Mark11; Hada,Kazuhiro33,34; Hecht,Michael H.2; Hesper,Ronald47; Ho,Luis C.48,49; Ho,Paul7; Honma,Mareki33,34; Huang,Chih-Wei L.7; Huang,Lei30,46; Hughes,David H.50; Ikeda,Shiro3,51,52,53; Inoue,Makoto7; Issaoun,Sara17; James,David J.4,11; Jannuzi,Buell T.10; Janssen,Michael17; Jeter,Britton19,20; Jiang,Wu30; Johnson,Michael D.4,11; Jorstad,Svetlana54,55; Jung,Taehyun21,22; Karami,Mansour18,19; Karuppusamy,Ramesh6; Kawashima,Tomohisa3; Keating,Garrett K.11; Kettenis,Mark56; Kim,Jae-Young6; Kim,Junhan10; Kim,Jongsoo21; Kino,Motoki3,57; Koay,Jun Yi7; Koch,Patrick M.7; Koyama,Shoko7; Kramer,Michael6; Kramer,Carsten16; Krichbaum,Thomas P.6; Kuo,Cheng-Yu58; Lauer,Tod R.59; Lee,Sang-Sung21; Li,Yan-Rong60; Li,Zhiyuan61,62; Lindqvist,Michael32; Liu,Kuo6; Liuzzo,Elisabetta63; Lo,Wen-Ping7,64; Lobanov,Andrei P.6; Loinard,Laurent65,66; Lonsdale,Colin2; Lu,Ru-Sen6,30; MacDonald,Nicholas R.6; Mao JR(毛基荣)67,68,69; Markoff,Sera29,70; Marrone,Daniel P.10; Marscher,Alan P.54; Martí-Vidal,Iván32,71; Matsushita,Satoki7; Matthews,Lynn D.2; Medeiros,Lia10,72; Menten,Karl M.6; Mizuno,Yosuke36; Mizuno,Izumi12; Moran,James M.4,11; Moriyama,Kotaro2,33; Moscibrodzka,Monika17; Müller,Cornelia6,17; Nagai,Hiroshi3,34; Nagar,Neil M.73; Nakamura,Masanori7; Narayan,Ramesh4,11; Narayanan,Gopal74; Natarajan,Iniyan39; Neri,Roberto16; Ni,Chunchong19,20; Noutsos,Aristeidis6; Okino,Hiroki33,75; Olivares,Héctor36; Ortiz-León,Gisela N.6; Oyama,Tomoaki33; ?zel,Feryal10; Palumbo,Daniel C. M.4,11; Patel,Nimesh11; Pen,Ue-Li18,76,77,78; Pesce,Dominic W.4,11; Piétu,Vincent16; Plambeck,Richard79; PopStefanija,Aleksandar74; Porth,Oliver29,36; Prather,Ben43; Preciado-López,Jorge A.18; Psaltis,Dimitrios10; Pu,Hung-Yi18; Ramakrishnan,Venkatessh73; Rao,Ramprasad15; Rawlings,Mark G.12; Raymond,Alexander W.4,11; Rezzolla,Luciano36; Ripperda,Bart36; Roelofs,Freek17; Rogers,Alan2; Ros,Eduardo6; Rose,Mel10; Roshanineshat,Arash10; Rottmann,Helge6; Roy,Alan L.6; Ruszczyk,Chet2; Ryan,Benjamin R.80,81; Rygl,Kazi L. J.63; Sánchez,Salvador82; Sánchez-Arguelles,David50,83; Sasada,Mahito33,84; Savolainen,Tuomas6,85,86; Schloerb,F. Peter74; Schuster,Karl-Friedrich16; Shao,Lijing6,49; Shen,Zhiqiang30,31; Small,Des56; Sohn,Bong Won21,22,87; SooHoo,Jason2; Tazaki,Fumie33; Tiede,Paul18,19; Tilanus,Remo P. J.17,45,88; Titus,Michael2; Toma,Kenji89,90; Torne,Pablo6,82; Trent,Tyler10; Trippe,Sascha91; Tsuda,Shuichiro33; van Bemmel,Ilse56; van Langevelde,Huib Jan56,92; van Rossum,Daniel R.17; Wagner,Jan6; Wardle,John93; Weintroub,Jonathan4,11; Wex,Norbert6; Wharton,Robert6; Wielgus,Maciek4,11; Wong,George N.43; Wu,Qingwen94; Young,André17; Young,Ken11; Younsi,Ziri36,95; Yuan,Feng30,46,96; Yuan,Ye-Fei97; Zensus,J. Anton6; Zhao,Guangyao21; Zhao,Shan-Shan17,61; Zhu,Ziyan42; Cappallo,Roger2; Farah,Joseph R.4,11,98; Folkers,Thomas W.10; Meyer-Zhao,Zheng7,99; Michalik,Daniel100,101; Nadolski,Andrew44; Nishioka,Hiroaki7; Pradel,Nicolas7; Primiani,Rurik A.11,102; Souccar,Kamal74; Vertatschitsch,Laura11,102; Yamaguchi,Paul11
Source PublicationASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS
2019-04-10
Volume875Issue:1Pages:32
DOI10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c57
Contribution Rank第67完成单位
Indexed BySCI
Keywordblack hole physics galaxies: individual (M87, 3C279) galaxies: jets techniques: high angular resolution techniques: interferometric
Abstract

We present the calibration and reduction of Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 1.3 mm radio wavelength observations of the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of the radio galaxy M87 and the quasar 3C 279, taken during the 2017 April 5-11 observing campaign. These global very long baseline interferometric observations include for the first time the highly sensitive Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA); reaching an angular resolution of 25 mu as, with characteristic sensitivity limits of similar to 1 mJy on baselines to ALMA and similar to 10 mJy on other baselines. The observations present challenges for existing data processing tools, arising from the rapid atmospheric phase fluctuations, wide recording bandwidth, and highly heterogeneous array. In response, we developed three independent pipelines for phase calibration and fringe detection, each tailored to the specific needs of the EHT. The final data products include calibrated total intensity amplitude and phase information. They are validated through a series of quality assurance tests that show consistency across pipelines and set limits on baseline systematic errors of 2% in amplitude and 1 degrees in phase. The M87 data reveal the presence of two nulls in correlated flux density at similar to 3.4 and similar to 8.3 G lambda and temporal evolution in closure quantities, indicating intrinsic variability of compact structure on a. timescale of days, or several light-crossing times for a. few billion solar-mass black hole. These measurements provide the first opportunity to image horizon-scale structure in M87.

Funding ProjectAcademy of Finland[274477] ; Academy of Finland[284495] ; Academy of Finland[312496] ; European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action[731016] ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University through John Templeton Foundation[60477] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[PIA ACT172033] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[Fondecyt 1171506] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[BASAL AFB-170002] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[ALMA-conicyt 31140007] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[104497] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[275201] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[279006] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[281692] ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM)[IN112417] ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes"[610058] ; Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant[APOSTD/2018/177] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF 947] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-3561] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-5278] ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)[JP17J08829] ; JSPS Overseas Research Fellowships ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008] ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18KK0090] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18K13594] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18K03656] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18H03721] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18K03709] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18H01245] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[25120007] ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[105-2112-M-001-025-MY3] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[106-2112-M-001-011] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[106-2119-M-001-027] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-001-017] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-001-020] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-110-005] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)[80NSSC17K0649] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400704] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0 400702] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0096454] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0352953] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0521233] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0705062] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0905844] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0922984] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1126433] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1140030] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[DGE-1144085] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207704] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207730] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11573051] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11633006] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11650110427] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[10625314] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11721303] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11725312] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11873028] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11873073] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[U1531245] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11473010] ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Research Foundation of Korea[2015-R1D1A1A01056807] ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1A2A1033752] ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1D3A1066561] ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award[639.043.513] ; Spinoza Prize[SPI 78-409] ; Swedish Research Council[2017-00648] ; Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development, Job Creation and Trade ; Russian Science Foundation[17-12-01029] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2016-80889-P] ; US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory[89233218CNA000001] ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Universita e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA[CUP C52I13000140001] ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; NSF[ACI-1548562] ; NSF[DBI-0735191] ; NSF[DBI-1265383] ; NSF[DBI-1743442] ; Smithsonian Institution ; Academia Sinica ; National Key R&D Program of China[2017YFA0402700] ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) ; MPG(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany) ; IGN (Instituto Geografico Nacional, Spain) ; State of Arizona ; NSF Physics Frontier Center award[PHY-0114422] ; Kavli Foundation ; National Science Foundation[PLR-1248097] ; NSF Physics Frontier Center[PHY-1125897] ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award[SEV-2017-0709] ; European Union' s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme[730562 RadioNet] ; GBMF[GBMF-947] ; Compute Ontario ; Calcul Quebec ; Compute Canada ; NSF ; CyVerse ; [Chandra TM6-17006X] ; [AST-1207752] ; [MRI-1228509] ; [OPP-1248097] ; [AST-1310896] ; [AST-1312651] ; [AST-1337663] ; [AST-1440254] ; [AST-1555365] ; [AST-1715061] ; [AST-1615796] ; [AST-1716327] ; [OISE-1743747] ; [AST-1816420] ; [AST-1614868]
Funding OrganizationAcademy of Finland[274477, 284495, 312496] ; European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action[731016] ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University through John Templeton Foundation[60477] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[PIA ACT172033, Fondecyt 1171506, BASAL AFB-170002, ALMA-conicyt 31140007] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[104497, 275201, 279006, 281692] ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM)[IN112417] ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes"[610058] ; Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant[APOSTD/2018/177] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF 947, GBMF-3561, GBMF-5278] ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)[JP17J08829] ; JSPS Overseas Research Fellowships ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008] ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, 25120007] ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119-M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, 107-2119-M-110-005] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)[80NSSC17K0649] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0 400702] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11873028, 11873073, U1531245, 11473010] ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Research Foundation of Korea[2015-R1D1A1A01056807, NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, NRF-2015H1D3A1066561] ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award[639.043.513] ; Spinoza Prize[SPI 78-409] ; Swedish Research Council[2017-00648] ; Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development, Job Creation and Trade ; Russian Science Foundation[17-12-01029] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P, AYA2016-80889-P] ; US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory[89233218CNA000001] ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Universita e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA[CUP C52I13000140001] ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; NSF[ACI-1548562, DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, DBI-1743442] ; Smithsonian Institution ; Academia Sinica ; National Key R&D Program of China[2017YFA0402700] ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) ; MPG(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany) ; IGN (Instituto Geografico Nacional, Spain) ; State of Arizona ; NSF Physics Frontier Center award[PHY-0114422] ; Kavli Foundation ; National Science Foundation[PLR-1248097] ; NSF Physics Frontier Center[PHY-1125897] ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award[SEV-2017-0709] ; European Union' s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme[730562 RadioNet] ; GBMF[GBMF-947] ; Compute Ontario ; Calcul Quebec ; Compute Canada ; NSF ; CyVerse ; [Chandra TM6-17006X] ; [AST-1207752] ; [MRI-1228509] ; [OPP-1248097] ; [AST-1310896] ; [AST-1312651] ; [AST-1337663] ; [AST-1440254] ; [AST-1555365] ; [AST-1715061] ; [AST-1615796] ; [AST-1716327] ; [OISE-1743747] ; [AST-1816420] ; [AST-1614868]
Language英语
Subject Area天文学 ; 天体物理学 ; 高能天体物理学 ; 实测天体物理学 ; 星系与宇宙学 ; 星系天文学
MOST Discipline Catalogue理学 ; 理学::天文学
SubtypeArticle
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
Publication PlaceTEMPLE CIRCUS, TEMPLE WAY, BRISTOL BS1 6BE, ENGLAND
ISSN2041-8205
URL查看原文
WOS IDWOS:000464210800003
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS KeywordSUPERMASSIVE BLACK-HOLE ; MILLIMETER ; EFFICIENT
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ynao.ac.cn/handle/114a53/19712
Collection丽江天文观测站(南方基地)
中国科学院天体结构与演化重点实验室
Corresponding AuthorAkiyama,Kazunori
Affiliation1.National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
2.Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory, 99 Millstone Road, Westford, MA 01886, USA
3.National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
4.Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, 20 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
5.Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada, Spain
6.Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
7.Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C.
8.Departament d’Astronomia i Astrofísica, Universitat de València, C. Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain
9.Observatori Astronòmic, Universitat de València, C. Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna, València, Spain
10.Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
11.Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
12.East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A’ohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720, USA
13.Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA), PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
14.California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
15.Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 645 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
16.Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères, France
17.Department of Astrophysics, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
18.Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5, Canada
19.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada
20.Waterloo Centre for Astrophysics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
21.Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daedeok-daero 776, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea
22.University of Science and Technology, Gajeong-ro 217, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea
23.Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
24.Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
25.Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5720 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
26.Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
27.Data Science Institute, University of Arizona, 1230 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
28.Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
29.Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
30.Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030, People’s Republic of China
31.Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, People’s Republic of China
32.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala, Sweden
33.Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-12 Hoshigaoka, Mizusawa, Oshu, Iwate 023-0861, Japan
34.Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
35.Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Pancini”, Universitá di Napoli “Federico II”, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli, Italy
36.Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universit?t Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Stra?e 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
37.INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli, Italy
38.Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Hatfield, Pretoria 0083, South Africa
39.Centre for Radio Astronomy Techniques and Technologies, Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa
40.Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany
41.Department of History of Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
42.Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
43.Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green St, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
44.Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
45.Leiden Observatory—Allegro, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
46.Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030, People’s Republic of China
47.NOVA Sub-mm Instrumentation Group, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands
48.Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People’s Republic of China
49.Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People’s Republic of China
50.Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, óptica y Electrónica. Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000. Puebla Pue., México
51.The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo, 190-8562, Japan
52.Department of Statistical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8562, Japan
53.Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583, Japan
54.Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215, USA
55.Astronomical Institute, St. Petersburg University, Universitetskij pr., 28, Petrodvorets,198504 St.Petersburg, Russia
56.Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC (JIVE), Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
57.Kogakuin University of Technology and Engineering, Academic Support Center, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015, Japan
58.Physics Department, National Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 70, Lien-Hai Rd, Kaosiung City 80424, Taiwan, R.O.C
59.National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
60.Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
61.School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, People’s Republic of China
62.Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, People’s Republic of China
63.Italian ALMA Regional Centre, INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy
64.Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sect.4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C
65.Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089, México
66.Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx 04510, México
67.Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China
68.Center for Astronomical Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012, People’s Republic of China
69.Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, People’s Republic of China
70.Gravitation Astroparticle Physics Amsterdam (GRAPPA) Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
71.Centro Astronómico de Yebes (IGN), Apartado 148, E-19180 Yebes, Spain
72.Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
73.Astronomy Department, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile
74.Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 01003, Amherst, MA, USA
75.Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
76.Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada
77.Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada
78.Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 180 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G 1Z8, Canada
79.Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
80.CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
81.Center for Theoretical Astrophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545, USA
82.Instituto de Radioastronomía Milimétrica, IRAM, Avenida Divina Pastora 7, Local 20, E-18012, Granada, Spain
83.Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av. Insurgentes Sur 1582, 03940, Ciudad de México, México
84.Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
85.Aalto University Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, PL 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
86.Aalto University Mets?hovi Radio Observatory, Mets?hovintie 114, FI-02540 Kylm?l?, Finland
87.Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, 03722 Seoul, Republic of Korea
88.Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), Postbus 93138, 2509 AC Den Haag, The Netherlands
89.Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
90.Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
91.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea
92.Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 2300, 9513 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
93.Physics Department, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
94.School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, People’s Republic of China
95.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT, UK
96.School of Astronomy and Space Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, People’s Republic of China
97.Astronomy Department, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, People’s Republic of China
98.University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 William T, Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA 02125, USA
99.ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
100.Science Support Office, Directorate of Science, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands
101.University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
102.Systems and Technology Research, 600 West Cummings Park, Woburn, MA 01801, USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Akiyama,Kazunori,Alberdi,Antxon,Alef,Walter,et al. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration[J]. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS,2019,875(1):32.
APA Akiyama,Kazunori.,Alberdi,Antxon.,Alef,Walter.,Asada,Keiichi.,Azulay,Rebecca.,...&Yamaguchi,Paul.(2019).First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration.ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS,875(1),32.
MLA Akiyama,Kazunori,et al."First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration".ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 875.1(2019):32.
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