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Black Hole and Neutron Star Binary Mergers in Triple Systems: Merger Fraction and Spin-Orbit Misalignment
Liu, Bin1,2,3; Lai, Dong1,2,4
Indexed BySCI
KeywordBinaries: General Black Hole Physics Gravitational Waves Stars: Black Holes Stars: Kinematics And Dynamics

Black hole (BH) mergers driven by gravitational perturbations of external companions constitute an important class of formation channels for merging BH binaries detected by LIGO. We have studied the orbital and spin evolution of binary BHs in triple systems, where the tertiary companion excites large eccentricity in the inner binary through Lidov-Kozai oscillations, causing the binary to merge via gravitational radiation. Using the single-averaged and double-averaged secular dynamics of triples (where the equations of motion are averaged over the inner orbit and both orbits, respectively), we perform a large set of numerical integrations to determine the merger window (the range of companion inclinations that allows the inner binary to merge within similar to 10 Gyr) and the merger fraction as a function of various system parameters (e.g., the binary masses m(1), m(2) and initial semimajor axis a(0), the mass, semimajor axis, and eccentricity e(out) of the outer companion). For typical BH binaries (m(1,2) similar or equal to 20 M-circle dot-30 M-circle dot and a(0) greater than or similar to 10 au), the merger fraction increases rapidly with e(out) because of the octupole perturbation, ranging from similar to 1% at e(out) = 0 to 10%-20% at e(out) = 0.9. We derive analytical expressions and approximate scaling relations for the merger window and merger fraction for systems with negligible octupole effect, and apply them to neutron star binary mergers in triples. We also follow the spin evolution of the BHs during the companion-induced orbital decay, where de Sitter spin precession competes with Lidov-Kozai orbital precession/nutation. Starting from aligned spin axes (relative to the orbital angular momentum axis), a wide range of final spin-orbit misalignment angle theta(f)(sl) can be generated when the binary enters the LIGO sensitivity band. For systems where the octupole effect is small (such as those with m(1) similar or equal to m(2) or e(out) similar to 0), the distribution of theta(f)(sl) peaks around 90 degrees. As the octupole effect increases, a more isotropic distribution of final spin axis is produced. Overall, merging BH binaries produced by Lidov-Kozai oscillations in triples exhibit a unique distribution of the effective (mass-weighted) spin parameter chi(eff); this may be used to distinguish this formation channel from other dynamical channels.

Funding ProjectNSFC[BX201600179] ; NSFC[2016M601673] ; NSFC[11703068] ; NSFC[11661161012] ; NSFC[OP201705] ; NSF[AST-1715246] ; NASA[NNX14AP31G]
Funding OrganizationNSFC[BX201600179, 2016M601673, 11703068, 11661161012, OP201705] ; NSF[AST-1715246] ; NASA[NNX14AP31G]
Subject Area天文学
MOST Discipline Catalogue理学 ; 理学::天文学
WOS IDWOS:000441311500005
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS KeywordLidov-kozai Oscillations ; Period Stellar Binaries ; Gravitational-waves ; Hot Jupiters ; Globular-clusters ; Chaotic Dynamics ; Galactic Nuclei ; Evolution ; Eccentricity ; Planets
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Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030, People’s Republic of China 2 Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
2.Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
3.Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011, People's Republic of China
4.Tsung-Dao Lee Institute, Shanghai 200240, People's Republic of China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Liu, Bin,Lai, Dong. Black Hole and Neutron Star Binary Mergers in Triple Systems: Merger Fraction and Spin-Orbit Misalignment[J]. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,2018,863(1).
APA Liu, Bin,&Lai, Dong.(2018).Black Hole and Neutron Star Binary Mergers in Triple Systems: Merger Fraction and Spin-Orbit Misalignment.ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,863(1).
MLA Liu, Bin,et al."Black Hole and Neutron Star Binary Mergers in Triple Systems: Merger Fraction and Spin-Orbit Misalignment".ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 863.1(2018).
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